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AP Env.Sci. Chp. 6

AP Evn. Sci. Chp. 6

Agroforestry when trees and crops are planted together, creating a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between them.
Aquaculture the raising of fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest.
bottom trawling a fishing technique in which the ocean floor is literally scraped by heavy nets that smash everything in their path.
by-catch any other species of fish, mammals, or birds that are caught that are not the target organism.
capture fisheries fish production in which fish are caught in the wild and not raised in captivity for consumption.
clear-cutting the removal of all of the trees in an area.
conservation the management or regulation of a resource so that its use does not exceed the capacity of the resource to regenerate itself.
Consumption the day-to-day use of environmental resources such as food,clothing, and housing.
contour plowing a process in which rows of crops are plowed across the hillside; this prevents the erosion that can occur when rows are cut up and down on a slope.
Deforestation the removal of trees for agricultural purposes or purposes of exportation
Driftnets nets that drift free in the water and indiscriminately catch everything in their path.
ecosystem capital the value of natural resources.
fishery the industry or occupation devoted to the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals.
greenbelt open or forested areas built at the outer edge of a city.
ground fires smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn underground for days or weeks. Originating from surface fires, ground fires are difficult to detect and extinguish.
intercropping-(also called strip cropping) the practice of planting bands of different crops across a hillside.
long lining in fishing, the use of long lines that have baited hooks and will be taken by numerous aquatic organisms.
Malnutrition poor nutrition that results from an insufficient or poorly balanced diet.
mineral deposit an area where a particular mineral is concentrated.
mining the excavation of the earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals.
Monoculture when just one type of plant is planted in a large area.
natural resources biotic and abiotic natural ecosystems.
nonrenewable resources resources that are often formed by very slow geologic processes, so we consider them incapable of being regenerated within the realm of human existence.
no-till methods refers to when farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil.
old growth forest one that has never been cut; these forests have not been seriously disturbed for several hundred years.
overgrazed when grass is consumed by animals at a faster rate than it can regrow.
preservation the maintenance of a species or ecosystem in order to ensure its perpetuation, with no concern as to their potential monetary value.
production the use of environmental resources for profit.
renewable resources refers to resources, such as plants and animals, which can be regenerated if harvested at sustainable yields.
second growth forests areas where cutting has occurred and a new, younger forest has arisen.
selective cutting the removal of select trees in an area; this leaves the majority of the habitat in place and has less of an impact on the ecosystem.
shelter-wood cutting when mature trees are cut over a period of time (usually 10-20 years); this leaves mature trees, which can reseed the forest, in place.
silviculture the management of forest plantations for the purpose of harvesting timber.
slash and burn when an area of vegetation is cut down and burned before being planted with crops.
surface fires fires that burn only the forest’s underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. These fires actually serve to protect the forest from more harmful fires by removing underbrush and dead materials that would burn quickly and at high temperatures.
tailings (piles of gangue) the waste material that results from mining.
traditional subsistence agriculture when each family in a community grows crops for themselves and relies on animal and human labor to plant and harvest crops.
terracing creating flat platforms in the hillside that provide a level planting surface, which reduces soil runoff from the slope.
tree farms (plantations) these are planted and managed tracts of trees of the same age that are harvested for commercial use.
uneven-aged management (selective deforestation) the broad category under which selective cutting and shelter-wood cutting fall
Created by: pinetreeacademy