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Allied Health

Circulatory System

What does the heart do? the organ that pumps blood through the system.
What is blood? a form of connective tissue that has a fluid component called plasma and a variety of cells and subsatnces
What are blood vessels? a network of passageways to transport the blood to and from the body's cells.
What are the major components of the cardiovascular system? The heart, blood, and blood vessels.
What are the vessels that carry blood away from the heart? Arteries
What does the circulatory system include? The cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system.
What are the functions of the circulatory system? Pump nutrinets throughout the body, carry blood to various parts of the body,delievers vital materials(oxygen and nutrients)to the cells of the body and the removal of cellular wastes, and return excess tissue fluid(often in the form of lymph to general c
What is the membrane of the heart called? the pericardium
What is the outter layer of the heart wall called? The visceral pericardium or the epicardium
What is the middle layer of the heart wall called and what is it made of? The myocardium and it is made of cardiac muscle
What is the responsiblity of the right side of the heart? Collecting blood and sending it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.
What is the responsiblity of the left side of the heart? Collects blood from the lungs and pumps it through the body.
What are the walls of the two small chambers called? Interatrial septum
What are the walls between the two large champers called? Interventricular septum
What are the veins that bring blood to the right atrium? The superior vena cava(blood from the head, neck,chest,and upper extremities) and the inferior vena cava(blood from the trunk, organs,abdomen,pelvic region, and lower extremitites)
What are the phases of the movement of the heart (cardiac cycle) Systole and diastole
What is cardiopulmonary circulation? the process of circulating blood through the lungs, picking up oxygen from the lungs and depositing carbon dioxide there to be released from the body during an exhalation.
How many pints of blood are in the average adult? 8-10 pints
What are the functions of the blood? transports nutrients, oxygen, cellular waste products, and hormones,; aids in distribution of heat; regulates acid-base balance; helps protect against infection.
what is plasma? liquid portion of blood without cellular components .
What is serum? plasma after a blood clot is formed.
What are cellular elements? red cells, white cells, and platelets.
What does plasma contain? water, blood proteins, and plasma proteins
What is fibronogen? necessary for blood clotting, synthesized in the liver.
What is albumin? from the liver, helps maintain blood's osmotic pressure and volume.
What is prothrombin? a globulin which helps blood coagulate(clot). Vitamin K necessary for prothrombin synthesis .
Function of red blood cells (erythrocytes)? transports oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide away from cells .
what are the functions of hemoglobin? red cells travel through the lungs where oxygen is carried to tissues and released carbon dioxide picked up and carried back to lungs for exchange .
What is arterial blood? lots of oxygen=bright red
What is venous blood? lots of carbon dioxide= dark crimson
What is erythropoiesis? The manufacture of red blood cells, and it occurs in blood marrow.
How long can red cells live? 120 days; old cells broken down by the spleen and liver.
What is hemolysis? rupture or bursting of erythrocyte, can be from a blood transfusion or disease. (when this occurs it can lead to death).
What is the function of leukocytes? Helps in fighting bacteria.
What is phagocytosis? Process when white cells surround, engulf, and digest harmful bacteria.
What do basophils produce? Heparin: an anticoagulant (no blood clotting).
What is diapedsis? When white cells move through capillary wall into neighboring tissue. (moving on little feet to where the bacteria is).
What is inflammation? Body's rection to chemical or physcial trauma.
What is a pathogenic? Disease producing microorganisma can cause inflammation.
What are the symptoms of inflammation? redness, local heat, swelling and pain
What does histamine do? Increases the blood flow to the injured area.
What is pus? a combination of dead tissues, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasma. (dead white cells).
What is an abscess? puss-filled cavity below the epidermis.
What is pyrexia? Increase in body temperature by the hypothalamus in response to pathogenic invasion .
What is leukocytosis? Increase in the number of white cells in response to infection.
What is leukopenia? Decrease in number of white cells due to cheomtherapy or radiation (defiency in white cells).
What are thrombocytes? smallest of soild componets of blood; synthesized in red marrow; not cells-fragments of megakarocytes(bug cells that produce platelets); necessary for the iniation of the blood clotting process.
What is haparin? Antiprothrombin
What is prothrombin? Dependent on Vitamin K.
What are the four major blood types? A, B, AB, and O.
What is an antibody? A protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foregin substance that enters the body.
What antibodies does someone with blood type O have? "A" and "B" antibodies.
What antibodies does someone with blood type "AB" have? No antibodies
What is the universal donor? "O"
What is the universal recipient? "AB".
what is it when you have Rh factor? You are Rh+. (Rh- if you dont have Rh factor) .
What is anemia? Diffency in the number/percenatge of red cells.
What is iron-defiecny anemia? Dificiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesis. Treated with iron supplements and grenn, leafy vegetables. Usually in women.
What is aplastic anemia? Bone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cells. Caused by drugs or radiation thearpy.
What is sickle cell anemia? Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents; causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shape(cresent shape); sickle cells break easily and carry less oxygen; occurs primarliy in blacks; treatment- blood transfusions.
What is polycythemia? Too many red blood cells are formed; may be temporary condition that occurs at high altitude (climbing up a mountain.)
What is embolism? Air, blood clot, cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the blood stream until it reaches as artery too small for passage; also known as a "moving blood clot".
what is thrombosis? The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel; the blood clot is a thrombus.
What is hematoma? Localized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue, or space; caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture.
What is hemophilia? Hereditary; missing clotting factor; blood clots slow or abnormally; sex-linked; transmitted genetically from mothers to sonsl treat with missing clotting factor;avoid trauma.
What is thrombocytopeina? Not enough platelets; blood will not clot properly
What is leukemia? Malignant condition; overproduction of immature white blood cells; hinders synthesis of red cells
What does the circulatory system involve? Heart, arteries, veins; capillaries; and blood/lymph are part of the circulatory system
What are the major blood circuits? General(Systemic) circulation; Cadriopulmonary circulation
How much does the heart weigh? 12-13oz.
What is the apex? Conical tip; lies on diaphragm, points left
What is the average heart beat? 72 beats per minute
How many beats per day does the heart produce? 100,000 beats per day
What is the pericardium? Double layer of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart.
What is the myocardium? Cardiac muscle tissue
What is endocardium? Smooth inner lining of heart.
What is the septum? Partition(wall) that seperates right half from the left half.
What is the superior vena cave and inferior vena cava? Bring deoxygenated blood to right atrium.
What is the pulmonary artery? Takes blood away from the right ventricle to the lungs for o2.
What is the pulmonary vein? Brings oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium.
What is the aorta? Takes blood away from left ventricle to the rest of the body.
What is the purpose of having four heart valves? Permits flow of blood in one direction.
What is the septum? Divides into R and L halves.
What are the upper chambers? Right atrium and left atrium .
What are the lower chambers? Right ventricle and left ventricle.
What is the tricuspid valve? Between right atrium and right ventricle.
What is the bicuspid(mitral) valve? Between left atrium and left ventricle.`
What are the semilunar valves? Located where blood leaves the heart( pulmonary semilunar valve/aortic semilunar valve)
What is the heart? The heart is a double pump.
What is the SA(sinatrial) Node? (pacemaker; located in the right atrium; SA node sends out electrical impulse; impulse spreads over atria, making them contract ; travels to AV node
What is the AV(atrioventricular) Node> Conducting cell group between atria and ventricle; carries impulse to bundle of His.
What is the bundle of His? Conducting fibers in septum;divides into R and L bracnches to netwrok of braches in ventricles(purkinje fibers): underneath AV node.
What are purkinje fibers? Impulse shoots long Purkinje fibers causing ventricles to contract
What is an electrocardiogram (EKG; ECG)? Device used to record the electrical activity of the heart.
What is systole? Contraction phase .
What is diastole? Relaxation phase .
What is "P"? The atrial contraction.
What is "QRS"? Ventricular contract .
What is "T"? Ventricular relaxation.
What is cardiopulmonary circulation? The heart and lungs
What is systemic circulation? From the heart to the tissues and cells then back to the heart.
What are arterioles? Small arteries
What are venules? Small veins
What is the aorta? The largest artery in the body.
What are arteries? Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries; elastic, muscular and thick-walled; transport blood under very high pressure
What are capillaries? Smallest blood vessels, can only be seen with a microscope; connect arterioles with venules; walls are one-cell thick and extremely then-allow for selective permeability of nutrients, oxygen, CO2 and metabolic wastes.
What are veins? Carry deoxygenated blood away from capillaries to the heart; veins contain a musculat layer, but less elastic and muscular than arteries.
What do valves do? permit flow of blood only in one direction of the heat.
Where is the jugular vein located? In the neck
What is blood pressure? Surge of blood when heart pumps creates pressure against the walls of the arteries.
What is systolic pressure? Measured during the contraction phase.
What is the average systolic? 120
What is the average distolic? 80
What is pulse? Alternating expansion and contraction of an artery as blood flows through it.
What is arrhythmia? Any change from normal heart rate or rhythm.
What is bradycardia? Slow heart rate. (<60bpm)
What is tachycardia? Rapid heart rate. (>100bpm)
What is angina pectoris? chest pain, caused by lack of oxygen to heart muscle,treat with nitroglycerin to dilate coronary arteries.
What is myocardial infraction? MI or heart attack; lack of blood supply to myocardium causes damage; amount of damage depends on size of area deprived of oxygen;use morphine for pain .
What is coronary by-pass? Usually, a healthy vein from the leg removed and attached before and after the coronary obstruction, creating an alternate route for blood supply to the myocardium .
What are pacemakers? Demand pacemaker- fires only when the heart rate dropa belwo programmed minimum.
What is CPR? Cardiopumlonary resuscitation.
What is a defibirillation? Electrical shock to bring the heart back to a normal rhythm,
What is AED? Automated external defibrillator.
What is an aneurysm? Balloning of an artery, thinning and weakening.
What is arteriosclerosis? Arterial walls thicken, lose elasticity.
What is atherosclerosis? Fatty depositts form on walls of arteries.
What is an embolism? Traveling blood clot.
What are varicose veins? Swollen, distended veins-heredity or due to posture, prolonged periods of standing, physical exertion; age and pregnancy.
What is hypertension? High blood pressure;"silent killer"- usually no symptoms; condition leads to strokes, heat attacks, and kidney failture.; Higher in African Americans and post-menopausal women.
What is hyportension? Low blood pressure, ,systolic (<100)
What is caridac catheterization? Catheter fed into heart, dye infected, x-rays taken as dye moves through coronary arteries.
What are stress tests? Determine how exercise affects the heart, pt. on treadmill, or exercise while electocardiogram recorded.
What is an angiogram? X-ray of a blood vessel using dye.
Why do arteries have muscles? So that they can contract and expand.
Which is the smallest? Capillaries. (thinner than veins also)
Which is thickest? Arteries are thicker than veins?
Created by: Netta16