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2/29 quiz LAB

Skeleton III - 2/29 quiz LAB

pelvic girdle composed of two os-coxae (halves)
os-coxa Half of the pelvic girdle. Composed of 3 separate bones fused together- ilium, iliac crest, ischium. Use greater sciatic notch to determine anterior/posterior.
ilium large, flat bone forms the posterior/lateral portion of pelvis.
iliac crest upper ridge of ilium. Can be felt when you "put your hands on your hips." Important landmark for giving an intramuscular injection into the buttocks muscle.
ischium Inferior to ilium in the posterior pelvis. Rounded bone you sit on.
pubis (pubic bones) Anterior to ischium. Forms the front portion of pelvis & join at the midline in the pubic symphysis.
pubic symphysis a piece of fibrocartilage linking the two pubis bones together.
obturator large hole in the inferior portion of the os-coxa
acetabulum "socket" of the ball-and-socket joint in the hip. Lateral portion of ox-coxa
sacrum 5 fused bones that form the posterior portion of of pelvis with the coccyx.
coccyx 2 fused bones (tailbone) that form the posterior portion with the sacrum.
female os-coxae more rounded
male os-coxae more heart-shaped
Femur large thigh bone
head (femur) extends medially from the proximal femur. "ball" portion of the hip's ball-and-socket joint, fitting securely into the acetabulum of the os-coxa
neck (femur) narrower section just lateral to the head of the femur. The neck connects with the head to the rest the femur. Weak structure. Where hip fractures occur.
Greater trochanter large bump on the lateral, proximal femur. Serves as attachment point for important hip muscles
Lesser trochanter bump which lies inferior to the head of the femur
Medial & lateral condyles (femur) Forms articulation with the tibia. Located at distal end of femur.
Medial & lateral epicondyles (femur) Just proximal to medial & lateral condyles (femur). Felt as firm bumps on either side of the distal femur near the knee
patella aka kneecap. Irregularly shaped bone 1-2 inches in diameter, that articulates with the anterior surface of femur.
sesamoid bone bone embedded into a muscle tendon (ie quadriceps tendon) to help reduce wear-and-tear.
tibia larger, medial bone of the lower leg. Felt as firm ridge at front of the shin. Articulates with femur proximally and ankle bones distally.
tibial tuberosity Bump located on the proximal, anterior surface of tibia, just below patella. Serves as anchor for patellar tendon of quadriceps muscle.
medial malleolus Pointed projection at distal end of tibia. Can be felt as a bump on the medial surface of ankle region.
fibula lateral bone of the lower leg, much smaller than tibia.
lateral malleolus projection from the distal end of fibula. Fractures occur when this separates from fibula when the ankle collapses sideways following a mis-step.
tarsal bones 7 bones form the ankle.
calcaneus largest tarsal bone that forms the heel
talus second largest tarsal bone that the articulation with the medial malleolus and articular surface of the tibia and the lateral malleolus of the fibula.
Metatarsals 5 bones that form the foot. Can be felt as bony ridges on the upper surface of the foot.
phalanges (foot) form toes. 3 for each toe, except great toe has 1
articulations joints
synarthroses fibrous/cartilagenous immovable joints. (ie suture lines of skull, epiphyseal plates of growing bone, tooth connections with mandible & maxilla)
amphiarthroses fibrous/cartilagenous partial movement. movement tends to be limited by presence of large cartilage pad found between bones (ie pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints)
diarthroses freely movable joints of the body, majority of body joints. All have same basic synovial design
synovial hinge joint: diarthroses (moveable joint) design
joint (articular) capsule fibrous band surrounding the joint to help hold bones in proper position and stabalizes the joint.
ligaments fibrous bands that help bind the bones of articulation together. Placement is critical because they can limit the movement of bones.
synovial membrane lines the inside of joint capsule in a moveable joint. Produces small amount of lubricating synovial fluid
synovial fluid small amount of lubrication produced by synovial membrane in a moveable joint.
articular cartilage smoothing thin layer covering joint surfaces
meniscus** a few joints contain this special cartilage pad (ie kneee)
bursa specdial fluid-filled puches, which reduce friction within the joint. Typically between tendon, ligament, or muscle of the bone surface.
gliding joints flat articular surfaces sliding back and forth across one another (carpal, patellar,tarsal)
hinge joints cylindrically shaped bone that moves within a concave surface of the opposing bone, like a door hinge (elbow: humero-ulnar, phalanges, kneee)
pivot joints generally have rounded or pointed surface that rotates within or around another bone (humero-radial, atlas, axis)
ball-and-socket joints rounded ball that moves within a cup-like structure of the opposing bone (shoulder, hip)
shoulder joint junction of humerus, scapula and clavicle. Ligaments hold in place and multiple muscles for movement.
rotator cuff formed by tendons of muscles of the shoulder joint. Helps hold head of humerus into the glenoid fossa.
elbow joint compound joint formed by the articulation of the radius within the humerus (pivot joint) and the ulna with the humerus (hinge joint). Both are surrounded by a single, very thick joint capsule, making the elbow a very stable joint. Has a bursa.
hip joint very stable joint formed by the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the pelvis. Most injuries are fractures of the bones rather than soft tissue injuries.
knee joint compound joint formed by the articulation of the femur with the tibia (hinge joint) and femur with the patella (gliding joint). Unlike the elbow, knee has multiple compartments and joint capsules.
medial & lateral meniscus cartilaginous pads between condyle of femur and tibia to protect articular cartilage of bones. Cushions impact between bones. Injuries interfere with mobility
collateral ligaments numerous ligaments to stabalize knee joint and hold bones together. Fibrous bands on medial & lateral knee, connecting tibia & femur.
cruciate ligaments collateral ligament that crosses diagonally through center of knee joint. Connect mensici. Common sports injury
patellar tendon tendon of quads into which patella has been imbedded. Inserts on tibial tuberosity. Side blow or wrong muscle contraction can dislocate patella
Created by: la66