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Ab Psych Exam 2

Neurosis mild psychological disorders (anxiety)
Psychosis severe psychological disorders (schizophrenia)
Anxiety The vague sense of being in danger
Phobia Experience a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Panic Disorder recurrent attacks of terror
Clinical symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1. Excessive worry/anxiety 2. Difficulty controlling worry 3. 3 or more symptoms
Symptoms of GAD restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating or mind going blank, insomnia, irritability, muscle tension
Generalized Anxiety Disorder experience excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything
Psychoanalytic perspective of GAD leakage of unacceptable id impulses into conscious awareness; failure of defenses inadequate parent/child relationship
Humanistic perspective of GAD result of people not accepting themselves for who they are; not authentic; lack of unconditional positive regard; conditions of worth
Cognitive perspective of GAD faulty belief system
Albert Ellis Basic irrational assumptions
Aaron Beck Maladaptive Assumptions
Aaron Wells Metacognitive Theory
Specific Phobia persistent, irrational fear in presence of object. Exposure provokes immediate anxiety response, recognition that fear is excessive, avoidance, interferes with normal routine
Social Phobia persistent fear of social or performance situation. Unfamiliar people,scrutiny/criticism, embarrassment, humiliation
Agoraphobia anxiety in being in situation where there is no escape
Obsessive compulsive disorder Anxiety disorder involving obsessions and compulsions
Psychodynamic Theory of Phobic Disorders threatening impulses rising to consciousness mobilization of defenses - projection
Behavioral Theory of Phobic Disorders learned response a. Classical Conditioning – acquisition of fear b. Modeling – acquisition of fear c. Operant Conditioning – maintenance of fear
Biological Theory of Phobic Disorders Preparedness – survival 1. genetic factors 2. predisposed by environment Amygdala activated
Cognitive Theory of Phobic Disorders oversensitive to threatening cues overprediction of danger self-defeating thoughts and irrational beliefs
Obsessions recurring, intrusive thoughts that a person can't control: wishes, impulses, images, ideas, doubts
compulsions repetitive, ritualistic behaviors that the person feels compelled to do: hand washing, checking, touching, counting, verbal phrases
Behavioral Theory of OCD Operant conditioning
Cognitive Theory of OCD Thoughts: someone who washes hands a lot thinks the world is a dirty place and they have to get rid of each and every germ. perceive dangers/risks
Biological Theory of OCD Neurotransmitters: Antidepressants- SSRIs (serotonin). Benzodiazepines- Xanax(GABA) Abnormal functioning in parts of the brain. Limbick system.
Psychological stress disorders Anxiety disorder, Axis 1. PTSD
Psychophysiological stress disorders Other disorders, Axis 1. Psychological factors affecting Medical conditions
PTSD prolonged, maladaptive reaction to a traumatic experience that involved the threat of death or serious injury. Characterized by: a. re-experiencing the trauma b. avoidance behavior c. reduced responsiveness d. increased arousal
DSM criteria PTSD exposed to traumatic event in which both are present:death threat/serious injury, response of intense fear, helplessness, horror. Traumatic event is persistently re-experienced: dreams,flashbacks. Persistent avoidance behavior. Increased arousal
Acute Stress Disorder same as PTSD except lasts less than 1 month
Panic Attack periodic intense anxiety reaction/strong physical response
Free floating anxiety Another term for GAD
Acute PTSD less than 3 months
Chronic PTSD 3 months or more
Delayed onset symptoms occur 6 months after stressor.
Biological Perspective of PTSD neurotransmitters, hormones: cortisol, norepinephrine. Brain areas: hippocampus-repeated memory/thoughts. Amygdala- repeated emotions
Cognitive Perspective of PTSD Maladaptive thoughts- looking for danger, die early. thinking life is going to be shortened or won't live a full life
Behavioral Perspective of PTSD CC: Anxiety and fear Operant conditioning: reinforcement & punishment. Avoiding anxiety.
Psychosocial Risk Factors for Psychological Stress Disorders 1. Predisposed Personality 2. Early Childhood experiences 3. Social Support 4. Multicultural factors 5. Severity of the trauma
Psychophysiological Stress Disorders symptoms a. Asthma b. Ulcers c. Insomnia d. Chronic Headaches e. Hypertension f Coronary Heart Disease
Biological perspective in Psychophysiological Stress Disorders defect in autonomic nervous system. too much norepinephrine and cortisol are bad for you. damages part of body
Psychological perspective in Psychophysiological Stress Disorders a. emotions b. coping style 1. Repressed coping style c. Personality Style 1. Type A: angry, impatient, competitive, driven, ambitious 2. Type B: calm, relaxed, easy-going
Sociocultural Perspective in Psychophysiological Stress Disorders 1. Risk Factors a. poverty b. crime c. unemployment d. poor health e. minority status
5 types of anxiety disorders GAD, Phobic disorders, Panic disorders, OCD, PTSD
identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response in examples of anxiety disorders Ex: US: gun shots UR: fear CS: Fireworks/loud noises CR: fear/anxiety
Type A Personality angry, competitive, driven, impatient
Type B Peronality relaxed, easy going
Panic attack symptoms pounding heart or accelerated heart rate, Sweating,Trembling/shaking,shortness of breath, Feeling of choking,Chest pain/discomfort,Nausea, Feeling dizzy,Derealization,Fear of losing control; dying,numbness/tingling,Chills or hot flushes
Somatoform Disorders physical symptoms that can’t be explained medically
Hysterical Somatoform Disorders 1) Conversion Disorder 2) Somatization Disorder 3) Pain Disorder
Preoccupation Somatoform Disorders (Called preoccupation because it preoccupies your time) 1) Hypochondriasis 2) Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Hypochondriasis misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms or features no matter what friends, relatives, and physicians may say. Not delusional, causes distress/dysfunction. begins in early adulthood, may or may not recognize symptoms are excessive
Conversion Disorder psychosocial need or conflict is converted into dramatic physical symptoms.Symptoms: affecting sensory function motor function/ no neurological cause, preceded by stress,not intentionally produced,Can't be medically explained, cause distress
Features of Conversion disorder Twice as often in women than men b. Begin in late childhood/ young adulthood c. Usually appear suddenly in times of stress d. Patients are considered suggestible, easily hypnotic. e. Belle Indifference
Belle Indifference Ex. could care less if they were to wake up blind one morning.
Malingering purposeful lying for gain
Factitious Disorder creating/ faking symptoms for no gain
Munchausen Syndrome Intentionally making yourself sick
Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome A form of child abuse where the mothers cause abuse to child and the doctors can't figure out what is wrong. They get a lot of attention.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder excessive worry that some aspect of one’s physical appearance is defective. may lead to social isolation. equally common in men/women. causes distress/dysfunction. preoccupation with physical defect(big ears).may be assoc. with OCD,depression,socialphobia
Pain Disorder pain that is psychologically induced as a result of stressful events.
Pain disorder DSM a. significant pain b. distress/ dysfunction c. psychological factors associated with onset, severity, exacerbation or maintenance d. not intentionally produced
Pain disorder subtypes i. associated with psychological factors ii. associated with both psychological and medical factors
Somatization Disorder recurring, multiple, clinically significant medical complaints without any biological basis. Patients are bothered by the symptoms, anxious or depressed, Disorder is chronic, more often women.
Psychodynamic Theory of a Somatization Disorder a. Unresolved Electra Complex b. primary gain - keep conflict repressed c. secondary gain – avoid responsibilities
Behavioral Theory of a Somatization Disorder a. modeling b. operant conditioning c. secondary gain
Cognitive Theory of a Somatization Disorder distorted thinking a. misinterpretation of symptoms b. symptoms are a way of communicating
Biological Perspective of a Somatization Disorder a. Genetic b. Neurotransmitters – serotonin c. Placebo effect
Sociocultural Perspective a. influenced by culture b. somatic complaints more common in non-Western cultures
Dissociative Disorders disorder characterized by dissociation of the functions of the self (memory, identity, consciousness) with no physical cause
4 types of Dissociative Disorders 1) Dissociative Amnesia 2) Dissociative Fugue 3) Depersonalization Disorder 4) Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia memory loss for no apparent physiological reason. a) Inability to recall personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature. Causes distress/function
Features of Dissociative Amnesia a) Revealed in retrospect b) Reversible c) Usually doesn’t happen immediately d) Sometimes can be acute e) Associated with stress, trauma f) Recall most often occurs suddenly, spontaneously
Localized Amnesia all events during a specific time period are forgotten
Selective Amnesia only disturbing events of a specific time period are forgotten
Generalized Amnesia all aspects of a person’s life is forgotten
Continuous Amnesia all events from a specific time to the present are forgotten
Systematized Amnesia specific categories of information is forgotten
Dissociative Fugue person travels away from home, flees from his/her life situation, assumes a new identity, and has amnesia for personal material. Sudden, unexpected travel; no recall of past life. assumption of new identity
Features of Dissociative Fugue a) Usually only lasts a few days b) Occurs during periods of stress c) Person’s personality often changes from passive to outgoing. d) Can sometimes last years e) Usually spontaneous recovery f) Rare
Depersonalization Disorder temporary feelings of detachment or estrangement from oneself (robot, dream, outside observer) a) Feeling of detachment of mental processes or body b) Reality is intact
Features of Depersonalization disorder a) Derealization – sense of unreality about the external world. b) Adequate reality testing (not psychotic) c) Memories are intact d) Very common symptom, not common diagnosis e) Comes on during periods of stress
Derealization sense of unreality about the external world.
Dissociative Identity Disorder two or more distinct personalities. Identities repeatedly take control of person’s behavior Extensive lack of recall for personal information. mostly assoc. w/abuse.
Primary identity the host body of a person with dissociative identity disorder
Alternate identities subpersonailities
Switching transitioning between identities
Psychodynamic Theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder a. Repression
Learning Theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder a. Negative reinforcement b. Observational learning c. State-dependent learning
Cognitive theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder self-hypnosis
Biological perspective of Dissociative Identity Disorder structural differences in brain
Diathesis Stress model for Dissociative Identity Disorder Biological predisposition and stress
Basic Irrational Thoughts Ellis, for example, proposed that many people are guided by irrational beliefs that lead them to act and react in inappropriate ways
Isolation simply disown their unwanted thoughts and experi-ence them as foreign intrusions.
Undoing perform acts that are meant to cancel out their undesirable impulses. Those who wash their hands repeatedly, for example, may be symbolically undoing their unacceptable id impulses.
Reaction Formation take on a lifestyle that directly opposes their unaccept-able impulses. A person may live a life of compulsive kindness and devotion to others in order to counter unacceptable aggressive impulses.
Anxiety Sensitivity A tendency to focus on one’s bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful.
Borkovec The Avoidance Theory: people with generalized anxiety disorder worry repeatedly in order to reduce or avoid uncomfortable states of bodily arousal.
Intolerance of Uncertainty Theory individuals believe that any possibility of a negative event occurring, no matter how slim, means that the event is likely to occur.
Metacognitive Theory people with GAD implicitly hold both positive and negative beliefs about worrying. On the positive side, they believe worrying is a useful way of coping with threats in life. And so they look for and examine all possible signs of danger— worry constantly
Avoidance theory people with generalized anxiety disorder worry repeatedly in order to reduce or avoid uncomfortable states of bodily arousal.
Primary Gain when their hysterical symptoms keep their internal conflicts out of awareness. Ex. a man who has underlying fears about expressing anger may develop a conversion paralysis of the arm, thus preventing his feelings of rage from reaching consciousness.
Secondary Gain hysterical symptoms further enable them to avoid unpleasant activities or to receive sympathy from others. Ex. a conversion paralysis allows a soldier to avoid combat duty or conversion blindness prevents the breakup of a relationship
Iatrogenic believe that therapists create this disorder by subtly suggesting the exis-tence of other personalities during therapy or by explicitly asking a pa-tient to produce different personalities while under hypnosis.
Mutually amnesic relationship the personalities do not realize there is another personality
Mutually cognizant relationship the personalities are fully aware of the other personalities
one-way amnesic relationship some subpersonalities are aware of others, but the awareness is not mutual.
Name 4 types of dissociative disorders Dissociative Identity disorder, Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociative Fugue, Depersonalization disorder
Name 5 types of somatoform disorders conversion, hypochondriasis, body dysmorphic disorder, somatization disorder, pain disorder
2 types of Preoccupationa somatoform disorders hypochondrias and body dysmorphic disorder
3 types of hysterical somatoform disorders conversion disorder, somatization disorder, pain disorder
Created by: montes_jl