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Nurs 232 Pain Management

What is Pain an unpleaseant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
What type of experience is pain a physical and emotional one
When dealing with a client what is pain? pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he says it does
What does persistent pain contribute to? insomnia, weight gain, constipation, hypertension, deconditioning, chronic stress, and depression
How is severe pain viewed? as an emergency situation deserving attention and prompt professional care.
Pain may be described in terms of? location, duration, intensity, and etiology
What is referred pain? pain that appears to arise in different areas
What does it mean for pain to radiate? Spread or extend
What is visceral pain? pain arising from organs or hollow viscera
Acute pain pain that lasts only through the expected recovery period; whether it has a sudden or slow onset and regardless of the intensity.
Cancer pain is? pain associated with the disease, treatment, or some other factor in individuals with cancer
Chronic pain is? pain that persists beyond 6 months secondary to chronic disorders or nerve malfunctions that produce ongoing pain after healing is complete.
Intractable pain is? A pain state, generally severe, for which there is no cure possible after accepted medical evaluation and treatments have been implemented.
Neuropathic pain is? pain that is related to damaged or malfunctioning nervous tissue in the peripheral and/or central nervous system.
Nociceptive pain? Pain that is directly related to tissue damage. May be somatic (e.g. damage to skin, muscle, or bone) or visceral (e.g. damage to organs).
Pain threshold is? The process of recognizing, defining, and responding to pain
Pain Tolerance is? the most pain an individual is willing or able to tolerate before taking evasive actions
This type of pain has a sympathetic nervous system response Acute pain
This type of pain has a parasympathetic nervous system response Chronic pain
When a patient has chronic pain how do their vital signs present? They present as normal
What happens to a patients VS when they present with acute pain Increased Pulse, Increased respiratory rate, elevated BP,Diaphoresis, Dilated pupils
dysethesia is? an unpleasant abnormal sensation; it mimics or imitates the pathology of a central neurophathic pain disorder.
Nociception is the physiologic processes related to pain perception
What are nociceptors? pain receptors
How can nociceptors be excited? by mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimuli
How do pain medications work during the transduction phase? They block the production of prostaglandins or decrease the movement of ions across the cell membrane.
What are the 4 process of Nociception? Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation
When does the process of perception begin? When the client becomes conscious of the pain
African Americans response to pain some believe pain and suffering is a part of life and is to be endured may deny or avoid dealing witht he pain till it becomes unbearable
Mexican Americans response to pain may view pain as a part of life and as an indicator of the seriousness of an illness some believe that enduring pain is a sign of strength
Puerto Ricans response to pain May tend to be loud and outspoken in their expression of pain. This is socially learned way to cope
Asian Americans Chinese value silence; As a result some clients may be quiet when in pain to avoid dishonor to themselves and their family Japanese may have a minimal verbal and nonverbal response
Native Americans response to pain Wuiet less expressive verbally and nonverbally and may tolerate a high level of pain
Some of these cultures may view self-infliction of pain as a sign of mourning or grief African and Middle Eastern
_______________ observation is recommend for pain assessment in infants Behavorial
Can environment compound pain? Yes; a lonely person who is without a support network may perceive pain as severe
Previous pain experiences __________ a client's ___________ to pain alter; sensitivity
Chronic pain affects the _________, __________, __________, and __________ mind, body, spirit and social relationships
The Wong Baker FACES rating Scale rates pain by? a set of faces that start a 0 and go to 5
COLDERR Character Onset Location Duration Exacerbation Relief Radiation
Pain Management the alleviation of pain or reduction in pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the client
Preemptive analgesia The administration of analgesics pros to an invasive or operative procedure in order to treat pain before it occurs
An almost universal adverse effect of opioid use is? Constipation
When starting opioid therapy when s it critical to assess sedation and respiratory status? during the first 12 to 24 hours; the most critical period is during the peak effect of the first dose (15min if IV, first hour if IM, oral or recral route)
What is PCA? Patient controlled analgesia; an interactive method of pain management that permits clients to treat their pain by self-administering doses of analgesics.
What does the PCA mode of therapy minimize? the roller coaster effect of peaks of sedation and valleys of pain that occur with PRN dosages.
What are the 4 therapeutic actions of Salicylates/ASA (aspirin) Reduce Fever, Decrease pain, Platelets deaggrivator, reduce inflammation
What is a problematic side effect of ASA? Ulcers
What are the therapeutic actions of Ibuprofen decrease pain fever inflammation
Problematic side effect of ibuprofen? GI bleeding
Therapeutic actions of Acetominophen (tylenol) decrease pain and fever
Acetaminophen should be used cautiously with which class of patients? that have known liver disease or @ risk for liver disease
What is the daily maximum dose for Acetaminophen 4g or 4000mg max for adults older adults 2g or 2000mg
What does it mean to be opioid-naive you do not know how the opioid will affect you
Stong or "mu" opioids are? Fentanyl  Hydromorphone (dilaudid)  Morphine
Weak "mixed" opioids Hydrocodone (lortab, vicodin)  Codeine (T3, emprin 3)  Tramadol (ultram)
Co-analgesics (adjuvants): Tricyclic antidepressants (Elavil)  Anticonvulsants (Neurontin)
What are the common side effects of opioid use? Constipation, Nausea, vomitting, sedation, respiratory depression, pruritis, urinary retention
What is tolerance to produce the same effect you may need to give more narcotics over time. upside side effects are lessened except for constipation.
Physical dependance is grown accustomed to getting a narcotic
Withdrawl increased heart rate diaphoresis irritability
What is addiction 4c's continued use despite the harm; a disease in and of itself. true risk of addiction is around 5%.
What route for medication is preferred as easiest, safest, and often least expensive, and best tolerated Oral
When is the IV route for medication preferred? for severe pain
Created by: 1390023652