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How would herpes simplex be treated in a neonate? Treated promptly by ophthalmologist, neonatologist with combined topical (trifluridine, iododeoxyuridine, vidarabine) & systemic (acyclovir). Comfort measures such as cleaning drainage away with a warm clean cloth & avoiding bright lights
How would the nurse test for a muscular abnormality related to vision? Measure extraocular movements to all quadrants. Evaluate corneal light reflex, cover-uncover test, and visual fields.
Review the risk for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Most common in male infants born before 28 weeks of gestation & weighing under 1600 g. Oxygen therapy, respiratory distress, mechanical ventilation, apnea, bradycardia, cerebral palsy, heart disease, multiple blood transfusions, infection, hypoxia
What intervention by Nursing is most important to a visually impaired school-aged child? Familiarize child with each new environment & allow time for adjustment. Encourage use of all senses, promote socialization, help parents to meet the child’s developmental & educational needs, provide emotional support.
What instructions should be provided to the parents of a child who is going home and has been diagnosed with otitis media? Discourage smoking, avoid wood-burning stoves. Provide pain relief techniques such as teaching correct administration of ear drops, oral administration of acetaminophen, and positioning the baby with head slightly elevated.
How can Pediatric Nurses assist a child with a mild hearing loss and who reads lips? First obtain child’s visual attention by lightly touching the child or saying his/her name; Position your face 3-6 feet from child’s face & make sure that child’s eyes are focused on your face & lips. Make sure room is well lit with no back-lighting.
How should a Pediatric Emergency Room patient with epitaxis be treated? Child should sit upright quietly. Head should be tilted forward to prevent blood from trickling down the throat which can lead to vomiting. Nares should be squeezed just below nasal bone & held for 10-15 min while child breathes through the mouth
What topics should be included in teaching children to prevent the common cold? Eliminating contact with infected person, proper hand hygiene & disposal of tissues. Clean counters, toys, door knobs, and other surfaces daily & discourage sharing of food dishes & utensils.
What Nursing interventions could be provided to a child with impaired oral mucous membranes? Keeping the mouth clean & administering topical or systemic analgesics can assist with comfort. Rinse the mouth after each meal or snack. Encourage diet of mild foods, avoid spicy, sweet, sour & acidic items; cold foods may be soothing
newborn - 1 month visual milestones alertness to light & visual stimuli 1ft from eyes. Blinks at approaching object. Follows objects 60* horizontally, 30* vertically
2 months infant visual milestones Follows person for 180* from 6 ft; smiles in response to face; raises head 30* from prone
3 months infant visual milestones regards own hand; begins visual-motor coordination
4-5 months infant visual milestones social smile; reaches for cube @ 1 ft; notices raisin @ 1ft; stares at own hand
7-8 months infant visual milestones reaches & grasps objects, picks up raisin by raking, transfers objects from hand to hand
8-9 months Infant visual milestones pokes at holes in peg board; well developed pincer grasp; uncovers toy after seeing it hidden; crawls
12-14 months visual milestones stacks blocks; places a peg in round hole; stands & walks
What post-operative instructions should be provided to the parents of a child who has undergone a tonsillectomy? give acetaminophen; chew gum & drink plenty of liquids; gargle with solution of baking soda & salt (1/2 tsp/8 oz H2O); apply ice collar around neck
What post-operative instructions should be provided to the parents of a child who has had tympanostomy tubes inserted? use ear plugs when in water; report to HCP if tubes get dislodged or purulent drainage noted