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Nurs 228

Heart Neck

S1 is the? closure of Mitral & Tricuspid valves (lub)
S2 is the? is closure of the Aortic and Pulmonic valves-(dubb)
Where is S1 best heard when auscultating? Best heard over the apex-left MCL, fifth ICS
Where is S2 best heard when auscultating? Best heard at the base of the heart
What is the blood L/min for cardiac output 5-6L/min
What are some S/S that could indicate a heart attack edema in feet, cyanosis, sweating, long term clubbing, Chronic COPD, all things that could suggest the risk of heart of attack.
what effect does nicotine have on the arteries? it constricts the arteries
How is the strength of the pulse evaluated? On the pulse amplitude scale
What does a strength of 0 on the Pulse amplitude scale indicate Absent pulse
What does a strength of 1+ on the Pulse amplitude scale indicate weak pulse
What does a strength of 2+ on the Pulse amplitude scale indicate normal pulse
What does a strength of 3+ on the Pulse amplitude scale indicate Increased or Full
What does a strength of 4+ on the Pulse amplitude scale indicate Bounding pulse
How do you assess apical pulse By auscultation or palpation
Where do you auscultate to hear the aortic valve 2nd intercostal space right sternal border
Where do you auscultate to hear the Pulmonic valve 2nd intercostal space left sternal border
Where is Erb's point located? 3rd intercostal space Left sternal border
Where do you auscultate to hear the Tricuspid 4th intercostal space left sternal border
Where do you auscultate to hear the mitral valve/apical pulse 5th intercostal space left mid clavicular line
Normal rate = 60-100 beats/min- adults
Tachycardia is? heart rate greater than 100 beats/ min
Bradycardia is heart rate less than 60 beats/ min- can be normal with athletes
what is a Pulse check? checking pulse from artery
What ethnic or cultural groups have a high risk for heart attacks? African American, Mexican American, American Indian, native hawaiian, Asian American.
True or false males over the age of 45 are at risk for heart attacks True
what is the the age that puts women at risk for heart attacks? 55 and over
Where do most heart attacks present in women? in the right coronary artery.
True or false most heart attacks in women are fatal? True
How many heart attacks occur per year in the U.S. 1.5 million
Is Sudden death from a heart attack more common for men or women women
Classic symptoms of a heart attack are? Chest pain Pressure, heaviness or tightness in the chest Pain/pressure in the neck or jaw Pain/pressure in one or both arms (especially the left) SOB Sweating Nausea Pain/throbbing between the shoulder blades
the hear has how many chambers? 4
What are the large veins and arteries leading directly to and away from the chart referred to as? great vessels
What do the superior and inferior vena cava do? return blood to the R atrium from the upper and lower torso respectively
Name the upper chambers of the heart right and left atria
Name the lower chambers of the heart right and left ventricles
Where are the Atrioventricular valves located? at the entrance into the ventricles
Another name for the Right AV valve is? tricuspid valve
Another name for the Left AV valve is? mitral valve
What is the pericardium? a tough inextensible, loose-fitting, fiberous sac that attaches to the greg vessels and thereby surrounds the heart.
What are the phases to the cardiac cycle? diastole and systole
What occurs during diastole relaxation of the ventricles, known as filling
What occurs during systole contraction of the ventricles, known as emptying
What is the P wave Atrial depolarization: conduction of the impulse throughout the atria
What is The QRS complex Ventricular depolarization also atrial repolarization; conduction of the impulse throughout the ventricles which then trigger contraction of the ventricles measured from beginning of the Q wave to the end of the S wave
What are the conditions that contribute to turbulent blood flow 1. increased blood velocity 2. structural valve defects 3. valve malfunction 4. abnormal chamber openings (eg septal defect)
How many sets of jugular veins are there? two; internal and external
What raises jugular venous pressure? Right-sided heart failure; raises pressure and volume
What is important in determine the hemodynamics of the right side of the heart? jugular venous pulse
What is Angina? cardiac chest pain
Where can angina radiate to? it may radiate to the left shoulder and down the left arm or to the jaw.
what are diaphoresis and pain worsened by activity usually related to? Angina
Compromised cardiac output may result from? fatigue
When is fatigue related to decreased cardiac output worse? in the evening or as the day progresses
Can genetic predisposition to risk factors increases a client' chance of developing heart Dz Yes; history of hypertension, MI, CHD, elevated cholesterol levels of DM can all be predisposing factors.
Is the use of alcohol linked to hypertension. Yes if it is excessive; more than 2 drinks per day in men and one per day in women.
when observing the patients jugular vein pulse what position should the patient be in? supine position with the torso elevated 30 to 45 degrees.
what may jugular vein distention, bulging, or protrusion @ 45, 60, or 90 degrees indicate? right sided heart failure
What is a bruit? a blowing or swishing sound caused by turbulent blood flow through a narrowed vessel. can be heard through auscultation
What a bruit indicative of? occlusive arterial disease
Weak pulses may indicate? hypovolemia, shock, decreased cardiac output.
A bounding or full pulse may indicate? hypervolemia, or increased cardiac output.
What should the radial and apical pulse rates be? Identical
what causes the apical impulse to be difficult to palate in older clients increased anteroposterior chest diameter
What are the characteristics of small, weak pulses diminished pulse pressure weak and small on palpation slow upstroke prolong systolic peak
Causes of a small, weak pulse are? conditions causing a decreased stroke volume hypovolemia severe aortic stenosis conditions that cause increased peripheral resistance hypothermia severe congestive heart failure
Characteristics of a large bounding Pulse Increased pulse pressure strong and bounding on palpation rapid rise and fall with a brief systolic peak
Causes of a large bounding pulse Conditions that cause increased SV or decreased peripheral resistance Fever Anemia hyperthyroidism Aortic regurgitation Bradycardia Complete heart block Aging Atherosclerosis
Can a systolic murmur be present in a healthy heart? Yes
What does a diastolic murmur always indicate? Heart Dz
The three categories of Diastolic murmurs are? early, mid, and late diastolic
How are murmurs described? By intensity on a scale from Grade 1 through Grade 6
I don't want to type out all the grades please see PAGE 376 . . ha
Created by: 1390023652