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Hydrosphere Test

Hydrosphere Unit Test

cohesion water attracted to water
adhesion water attracted to other materials
specific heat water's capacity to absorb a lot of heat without raising its temperature
polarity the positive/negative shape of a water molecule
surface tension water's desire to form strong bonds at the surface
buoyancy upward force that water creates on matter
capillary action water's ability to climb and rise
density the mass per unit volume of a substance
evaporation process where liquid water becomes water vapor (gas)
condensation process where water vapor, a gas, in the air turns into liquid water. Condensing water forms clouds
precipitation process where water falls from clouds in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail
percolation process where liquid water moves downward through pores in the ground because of gravity
runoff precipitation that flows over the land getting to lakes, rivers, streams
transpiration process where water within plants evaporate into the atmosphere
hydrosphere all water on earth
lithosphere rock layers of earth
atmosphere all air (gas) layers
biosphere all living things
What percent is fresh water? 3%
What percent is saltwater 97%
What percent of fresh water is frozen? 68.7%
What percent of fresh water is groundwater? 30.1%
What percent of fresh water is surface water? .3%
What percent of fresh water is other? .9%
What percent of surface water are lakes and streams? 87%
What percent of surface water are swamps? 11%
What percent of surface water are rivers? 2%
What percent of water is unusable? 99%
What percent of water is usable? 1%
surface water water on top of the surface
channel path that water follows
tributary a stream that flows into a larger body of water
river a stream that becomes wider, deeper, and larger
watershed also called a drainage basin; are of land that is drained by a water system
continental divide runs through the Rocky Mountains that separates the flow of water in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean
divide higher ground that separates watersheds
stream narrow deep channel that is filled with water
What are some characteristics for youthful rivers? -flows very quickly -erodes their channel -gets deeper, not wider -steep gradient -waterfalls -strong rapids
What are some characteristics for mature rivers? -medium speed -erodes channel -gets wider, not deeper -no waterfalls -small rapids -fed by many tributaries- Ex. French Broad
What are some characteristics for old rivers? -low gradient -little erosive energy -floodplains
What are some characteristics for rejuvenated rivers? -land has been raised by tectonic activity -cut deeply into the valley floor -forming step-like formations, called terraces
deposition process where material is laid down or dropped
erosion occurs along the outside bank of bend- faster
alluvial fan mass of material deposited by a stream onto the land
Where is sediment deposited? Sediment is deposited where the speed of the water current decreases
placer deposits heavy minerals that deposits at a place in the river where the current slows down
delta fan shaped mass of material deposited at the mouth of a stream (forms in water)
dam a barrier that can redirect the flow of water (hold water in)
levee build up of sediment deposited along the channel of a river (keeps water out)
gradient change in elevation
high gradient high erosive energy
low gradient little erosive energy
discharge amount of water a river carries
How is discharge increased? major storms and melting snow
What happens when there is more discharge erosive energy? the discharge gains in speed and changes its load
load materials carried by a stream
What effects the size? speed effects size
speed of larger particles? faster
speed of smaller particles slower
bed load large rocks and boulders
suspended load smaller rocks and sediments
dissolved load solutions, pollution by products
groundwater water located within the rocks below the earth's surface
spring when the water table reaches the surface water flows out onto the ground
zone of aeration upper zone of underground that water passes through
zone of saturation lower zone where water collects by filling the spaces between rock particles
porosity percentage of open space between individual rocks
impermeable rocks that stops the flow of water
permeable allows water to pass through
aquifer rock layer that stores water and allows to flow freely
recharge zone ground surface where water enters an aquifer (percolation)
Artesian Spring water flows through a crack in the cap rock of the aquifer
water table boundary between 2 zones that change based on water supply
cave formed by underground erosion (dissolving) limestone
sinkhole when the water table is lower than the level of the cave, the roof of the cave can collapse, leaving a circular expression
stalactites water drips through a crack in the cave's ceiling leaving deposits of calcium carbonate
stalagmites water that falls to the cave floor and forms mineral deposits
well a man-made hole that needs to be deeper than the water table
Archimedes Principal states that the buoyancy force on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the volume of liquid that the object displaces.
liquid displaced (buoyant force) The magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid
liquid displaced (mass) mass of the boat is equal to the mass of displaced liquid
volume underwater multiply the width, length, and depth of the boat
sinking depth boat mass divided by length times width (or area)
Created by: vish0298