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Research test 2

Nursing Research Research designs quantitative studies ch. 9

Research Design overall plan for answering research questions or testing a hypothesis while maintaining control over extraneous variables in a study
Purpose of a Research Design provides a blueprint for strategies to follow during a study; provides structure for analyzing and evaluating the data obtained
Where is the Research Design most commonly found in a report? The Method Section
3 methods of collecting studies 1. self report 2. observational 3. physical measurement
Types of Quantitative Designs 1. experimental 2. quasi-experimental 3. non-experimental
Characteristics of an Experimental Design (part 1) -manipulation of independent variables -random selection of subjects -random assignment of subjects to a control group and a treatment group -researcher is an active agent -RCT (randomized controlled design)
Characteristics of an Experimental Design (part 2) -cause must precede the effect -you do something to one group but not to another (manipulating the independent var) -IT IS THE MOST POWERFUL DESIGN B/C OF THE RANDOMNESS -all procedures must go through experimental design 1st
goals of an experimental design study to examine cause and effect of 1 treatment vs. another or no treatment in a setting where randomization is feasible
Which is the most powerful design for establishing a cause and effect? Experimental Design
Manipulation doing something to some of the subj. in a study (treatment grp) & withholding it from other subj in a study (control grp) or doing something to a group via a placebo -acting on the IV then observing the effects on the DV
Independent Variable (IV) the variable believed to be a cause of or to have an influence on the DV; manipulated or treatment variable in an experimental research
Dependent Variable (DV) the variable believed to be an effect of the independent variable; outcome variable in experimental research
Control Group group of subj. in a study who receive no treatment (IV) yet have their performance on the DV evaluated
Treatment group group of subj. in a study who receive a treatment or have a condition manipulated (IV) and then have their performance on the DV evaluated for effectiveness of the treatment or manipulation
Random Selection selection of subj. for a sample to be used in a study on a random basis -each person has an equal chance or probability of being selected -systematic bias regarding attributes not introduced;any differences noted inferred to be a result of the treatme
Random Assignment assignment of subj to either a control group or a treatment group on a random basis **Random assignment is involved in design**
which is the most trustworthy and accepted method of equalizing in an experiment? Random Assignment; but there is no guarantee
Determining Randomization -drawing from a hat -flipping a coin -using a computerized lottery -using a table of random numbers
Types of Experimental Designs: Posttest design observe DV only after treatment; between-subjects design
Types of Experimental Designs: Pretest-posttest design observe DV before and after treatment; between subj design
Types of Experimental Designs: Factorial Design observe main effects and interaction effects of IV factors on DV; between subj design **uses more than one factor**
Types of Experimental Designs: Cross-over design AKA repeated measures design -observe DV after more then one treatment; within subjects design
Between-subjects design a design in which separate groups are being compared (smokers & nonsmokers)
within-subjects design a design in which one group is compared under diff. circumstances or points in time (before surgery/after surgery)
Limitations of Experimental Designs -some variables not amenable to manipulation d/t nature of variables or for ethical reasons -Hawthorne effect: being in a study may cause Ss to change their behavior, obscuring effect of variables
Limitations of Experimental Designs **Ss and researcher could alter behavior, thus may need to conduct a double blind study (both Ss and researcher unaware of who is in treatment and control groups)
Characteristics of Quasi-experimental Design -manipulation of IV -no random selection of Ss -no random assignment of Ss to a control or treatment group -less powerful design for establishing cause and effect -researcher is an active agent
Goals of a quasi-experimental design to examine cause and effect relationships or to evaluate effectiveness of a treatment in a setting where randomization is not feasible
Types of Quasi-experimental designs: nonequivalent control group design observe DV before and after treatment; between subjects design using treatment group and comparison group; no randomization
types of quasi-experimental design: time-series design observe DV over an extended period of time during which treatment is administered; within subjects design; no control group or randomization
Characteristics of Non Experimental Design -no manipulation of IV -no random selection of Ss -no random assignment of Ss to control or treatment group -researcher is passive agent (observer)
Which is the least powerful design? Non-experimental design -it does not involve cause and effect, but rather identification of relationships or differences
What is the most common design in nursing studies? Non-experimental design
Goals of a non-experimental design to describe events, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, processes, or characteristics or to examine relationships between 2 or more variables
Types of non-experimental designs: descriptive design describe characteristics of ppl. or situations or prevalence and distribution of specific attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge
Types of non-experimental designs: correlational design explore relationship among two or more variables w/o treatment; examine changes or differences over time - may be a retrospective design, a prospective design, a cross-sectional design or a longitudinal design
Correlational Design -does not establish cause and effect (smoking and lung cancer) -establishes magnitude of correlation -close to 1.00 (+ or -) = strong correlation -close to 0.00 (+ or -) = weak correlation + = same direction - = opposite direction
The following correlations were obtained in several studies. Which has the strongest correlation? a. +.85 b. -.26 c. +.34 d. -.97 D, A, C, B
Retrospective Design study begins with DV (effect) and looks backward for cause -examine present state resulting from influence of past event (effect to cause) -ex: neonatal sepsis based on mothers poor hygiene
Prospective Design study beings with IV (cause) and looks forward for effect (DV) -examine present event resulting in influencing future state (cause to effect) (ex: use of a high fat diet in Heart study resulting in heart disease)
Cross-sectional design study involves collecting data at one point in time with multiple Ss -examine differences across groups (ex: facial cleansing patterns in teenagers in high school) **weaker than longitudinal **almost always retrospective
Longitudinal Design study involves collecting data from one group of subjects at multiple points in time -examine changes over time **pimarily prospective
Extraneous Variables factors that may influence or confound study results -external factors: related to research situation or environment -intrinsic factors: related to research subjects **need to control by holding conditions constant and uniform to limit effect
Control of External Factors constancy of conditions: minimize potential contaminants during the collection of data; make environment or situation similar for Ss -setting -timing -data collection -instructions -communication patterns (researchers may convey expectations to Ss
Control of Intrinsic Factors -randomization (most effective) -homogenity-- endure Ss are similar (ex: all men, all teenagers) -matching: form comparison groups using Ss characteristics -statistical control (ex: analysis of covariance, repeated measures)
research validity evaluation of the merits of a study to promote correct inferences
research validity: internal validity extent to which evidence supports treatment (IV) is causing or influencing effect (DV), rather than extraneous variables
research validity: external validity extent to which findings are generalizable to other ppl & conditions (adequate sampling, replication of studies w/ diff Ss in diverse settings)
threats to internal validity part 1 history: occurrence of events concurrent with IV that can affect DV selection: biases from preexisting diff. btwn groups maturation: developmental, biological, or psychosocial processes occurring as a result of time, not the IV
threats to internal validity part 2 mortality: loss of SS during the study (attrition) ex: impeachment, earthquake, race riot, CEU program, ad, bombing
Created by: lissy11