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NUR 105-chpt 38 & 39

Antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
Name the 7 major classifications of antibiotics. Sulfonamides Penicillin Cephalosporin Macrolides Tetracyclines Aminoglycosides Fluoroquinolones
If a patient had an ear infection, bronchitis, or a UTI, what class of antibiotic would be best to use? Sulfonamides
If a patient had a respiratory, skin, ear, or urinary infection which class of antibiotic would best be used? Penicillin (drugs end in cillin)
If a patient had pseudomonas or meningitis, which class of antibiotic would be best? Cephalosporin
If a patient had Lyme disease, or respiratory infections, which class of antibiotic would be best? Macrolides
If a patient had an STD, which class of antibiotic would be best? Tetracyclines
If a patient had pneumonia, GI or intestinal infections, which class of antibiotic would be best? Aminoglycosides (drugs end in mycin)
If a patient had pneumonia, MRSA, complicated UTI's, which class of antibiotics would be best? Fluoroquinolones
Medications used to treat bacterial infections. antibiotics
What would be a therapeutic response to antibiotics? decrease in specific signs and symptoms of infection
What would be a sub therapeutic response to antibiotics? signs and symptoms do not improve
The ability of a drug to harm a target cell without causing injury to other cells or organisms. selective toxicity
Treatment of an infection before specific culture information has been reported or obtained--based on experience and knowledge of current infections in the populace. emperic therapy
Treatment with antibiotics to prevent infection prophylactic therapy
Bacteria that is able to change its composition in response to a drug aquired resistance
How can aquired resistance be avoided? use antibiotics only when necessary & treat the specific pathogen
GIve two examples of multi-drug resistant bacteria MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococcus)
Which class of antibiotics wokrs via an essential enzyme system and must be taken with 2000mL of fluid per day to prevent crystalluria or precipitation within the kidneys. Sulfonamides
Which class of antibiotic is associated with the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, photosensitvity, and can increase effectiveness of coagulants (coumadin)? Sulfonamides
Any patient taking this class of antibiotic should be carefully monitored for an allergic rxn for at least 30 min after administration. Its effectiveness is decreased when taken with caffeine, citrus, fruit or tomato juices, or soft drinks. Pencillins
What class of antibiotic is a deriviative of a fungus, equivalent to pencillin, is bacteriocidal, has 5 generations, pregnancy cat B, broad spec, highly protein bound, diffuses in CSF, may mix w/ lidocain for comfort, can be IV or IM 1xday,long half life Cepahlosporins
What class of antibiotic should only be administerd with food, to decrease GI upset & should not be take with alcohol and have a cross sensitivity with PCNs Cephalosporins
Which class of antibiotic is natural/semisynthetic, is bacteriostatic, dairy products, antacids, & iron salts reduce oral aborption, have a strong affinity for calcium in pregant women, pediatrics, and nursing mothers. Tetracyclines
Which class of antibiotics should be taken with 6-8 ounces fluid, preferably h20, should NOT be given to preganant women and children under 8, and are photosenstive so tanning beds and sunlight should be avoided. Tetracyclines
Which class of antibiotics are natural/semisynthetic, are bacteriocidal, mostly gram neg, IV and IM absorb best, very poten w/serious toxicity, commonly use w/ other antibiotics, have synergistic effects Aminoglycosides
Which class of antibiotics must we monitor its peak adn trough blood levels of these agents to prevent nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity Aminoglycosides
Which class of antibiotics are bacteriocidal, are active against wide variety of bacteria, have excellent oral absorption, extensive gram coverage (great for UTI's), is the first oral class to kill gram neg Quinolones
What class of antibiotic must we force fluids~3000ml/day to avoid crystalluria, can cause cardiac dysryhmias-dizziness should be reported, need to increase citrus foods to decrease urinary pH, limit antacids, dairy, peanuts, sodium bicarbonate (alkalines) Quinolones
Which class of antibiotics were first introduced in 1950's and are bacteriostatic? Macrolides
Which class of antibiotics are highly protein bound and will cause sever interactions with other protein bound drugs, must be taken after a meal or snack bc its absorption is enhanced when taken on an empty stomach Macrolides
common mechanisms of action: interference w/ bacterial cell wall synthesis interference w/ protein synthesis interference w/ replication of nucleic acids (dna & rna) antimetabolite action that disrupts critical metabolic reactions inside bacterial ce Antibiotics
Classified into many broad categories based on chem structure. - Sulfonamides - Penicillins - Cephalosporins - Macrolides - Quinolones - Aminoglycosides - Tetracyclines antibiotics
Substances that can interfere w/normal prenatal dev. and cause one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus tetracyclines
antimicrobial tx for diff infection, resulting from overgrowth of organism not susceptible to antibiotic used OR 2ndary microbial infection-occurs in addition to an earlier primary infection due to weakening of the pt immune sys function by 1st infection Superinfection
referring to antibiotic treatment that is "ineffective" in treating a given infection. Possible causes include: - inappropriate drug therapy - insufficient drug dosing - bacterial drug resistance Subtherapeutic
referring to antibiotic therapy that results in sufficient concentrations of a drug in the blood or other tissues to render it "effective" against specific bacterial pathogens therapeutic
A common genetic host factor where the rate of metabolism of certain drugs is reduced Slow Acetylation
a necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often assoc. w/antibiotic therapy A more general term that is also used is "antibiotic-associated colitis" Pseudomembranaous colitis
Factors that are unique to the body of a particular patient that affect the patient's susceptibility to infection & response to various antibiotic drugs host factors
The administration of antibiotics based on known results of culture & sensitivity testing identifying the pathogen causing infection definitive therapy
An infection that is acquired by persons who have not been hospitalized or had a medical procedure recently (w/in the past year) community associated infection
The establishment & growth of microbes on the skin, open wounds, or mucous membranes or in secretions w/out causing adverse clinical signs or symptoms colonization
Meds combined w/certain penicillin drugs to block the effect of beta-lactamase enzyme beta-lactamase inhibitors
Any of a group of enzymes produced by bacteria that catalyze the chemical opening of the crucial beta-lactam ring structures in beta-lactam antibiotics beta lactamase
The designation for a broad, major class of antibiotics that includes four subclasses: - Penicillins - Cephalosporins - Carbapenems - Monobactams So named b/c of the beta-lactam ring that is part of the chem structure of all drugs in this class beta-lactam
Antibiotics that do not actually kill bacteria but rather inhibit their growth bacteriostasis
Antibiotics that kill bacteria bacteriocidal
aka: cidal One of two types of topical antimicrobial agent. A chemical applied to nonliving objects to kill microbes. - Used on nonliving objects - Toxic - Higher potency - Bactericidal / Kills disinfectant
aka: static agents One of two types of topical antimicrobial agent. A chemical that inhibits the growth & reproduction of microbes w/out necessarily killing them. Used on living tissue Not toxic Lower Potency - Bacteriostatic / Primarily Inhibits antiseptic
Created by: jessicaspring