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68wm6 p2 Inf Dis Ner

Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders of the Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
What infections can cause meningitis? Ear, Nose, and Blood
What are the causes of meningitis? Bacterial, Viral, and Fungal
What is Brudzinskis Sign? Flexion of the neck produces flexion of the hips and knees
What is Kertigs Sign? Inability to extend the leg when the thigh is flexed on the abdomen without extreme pain.
What is Opisthotonos? An extreme hyperextension of the neck and arching of the back.
List 5 S/Sx of meningitis: *Fever *Nuchal rigidity (Neck stiffness) *N/V *Altered LOC *Photophobia *Kernigs sign *Brudzinskis sign *Opisthotonos
Antibiotics given for meningitis need to be able to do what? Cross the blood brain barrier
What are hyperosmolar agents? Agents effective in reducing ICP through 1)Plasma expansion w/decrease in hematocrit and cerebral blood volume 2)draws CSF from brain into circulation
The bed of a PT with meningitis must be placed how? HOB elevated
Encephalitis is most often caused by what? A virus (measles, chicken pox, mumps ect..)
When is encephalitis more prevalent? After flu epidemics
What form of encephalitis is a common complication of AIDS? Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis
What S/Sx seperate Meningitis and Encephalitis? *Visual disturbances *Tremor/ Muscle weakness *Lack of coordination *Spastic/flaccid paralysis *Convulsions
What medications are given to control ICP? *Hyperosmolar agents *Mannitol *Corticosteroids
What can be given to reduce the mortality from Herpes Simplex encephalitis from 70%-30%? Antivirals (Acyclovir is prefered due to fewer side effects)
What is Guillian-Barre Syndrome (GBS)? Widespread inflammation and demyelination of the peripheral nervous system. Antibodies attack the schwann cells which compose the myelin sheath. Uninsulated nerve inflames, interrupting nerve transmission.
What are the first symptoms of Guillian-Barre Syndrome (GBS)? Motor weakness and numbness/tingling
Where does the symptoms of GBS start? Lower extremities, then move upward
How does remyelination occur in GBS? demyelination is self limiting. Remylination occurs in revers, starting at upper extremities and moves downward.
When is a craniotomy indicated in a brain abscess? If the abscess is encapsulated and antimicrobial therapy cant reach it.
Created by: Shanejqb