Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Respiratory E1 BP

1409 Respiratory Exam 1 Blueprint

Sputum studies Collect early in the AM. Examines sputum for pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells. Get this before starting antibiotics.
C&S Sometimes done over successive days. Can be done during a bronchoscopy.
Thoracentesis is a procedure done to aspirate accumulated fluid in between the visceral and parietal pleural layers of the lungs. Meds may be added directly into this layer to fight infection.
Thoracentesis complications pneumothorax, csubcutaneous empysema, infection, pulmonary edema, cardiac distress
Post Care for a thoracentesis Monitor chest sounds for crackles often
Bronchoscopy allows for direct visualization of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
Bronchoscopy is used to diagnose, treat, or evaluate lung disease. Biopsies and sputum may be obtained. Retrieval of foreign bodies.
Precare of bronchoscopy NPO, consent, local anesthetic to stop gag, atropine to dry secretions. Sedative to depress vagus nerve.
Postcare of bronchoscopy NPO until gag reflex returns. VS, neuro checks
Complications of bronchoscopy hypotension, bradycardia, dysrhythmias, bronchospasm, laryngospasm, hypoxemia, perforation/bleeding, aspiration, infection
pH Normals 7.35 - 7.45
PaO2 Normals 80-100
PaCO2 Normals 35-45
HCO3 Normals 22-26
SaO2 Normals 95-100%
Acidosis Increased levels of acids or decrease of HC03
Alkalosis Decreased levels of acids or increase of HCO3 Can be caused by respiratory or metabolic dysfunction.
High pH is alkaline Low pH is acidic
High CO2 is Acidic Low CO2 is alkaline
Respiratory Acidoses PaCO2>45mmHg. Body holding onto CO2. Low pH. Can be caused by pneumothorax, pulmedema/asthma/atelectasis. drug overdose. cystic fibrosis.
S/S Respiratory Acidosis slow or irregular breaths, absence of breathing, tachycardia, cyanosis, mental status changes, confsuion, disorientation, flushed skin, ha, stupor that advances to coma.
Treatment for respiratory acidosis support of respiratory function. oxygen/ippb/cpap, bronchodilators, suction to clear airways, ventilator, chesttubes, sodium bicarb, antibiotics.
Respiratory alkalosis PaCO2 <35mmHg. Can be caused by: Rapid breathing. Release of too much CO2. Thyrotoxicosis. ASA poisoning. Hypoxemia. Mechanical Ventilation.
SS of Respiratory Alkalosis rapid respiratory and heart rate. dizziness. numbness and tingling of fingers and toes. circumoral paresthesia. tingling around mouth. sweating. convulsions.
treatment of respiratory alkalosis measures to slow respiratory rates. breathing into paper bag. Sedation.
Metabolic Acidosis Decrease in pH from increase in acids or decrease in HCO3 levels. Can occur during: shock and cardiac arrest. DKA. starvation. May also follow renal failure. ASA OD. Diarrhea.
SS of Metabolic Acidosis Deep and rapid breathing. Kussmauls breathing. Anorexia. NVD. Confusion. Lethargy. Cardia Dysrhythmias RT Decrease in Contractility. Stupor-coma-death.
Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis Fluid and electrolytes replaced. IV HCO3
Metabolic Alkalosis Increase in pH from elevated HCO3 or decrease in hydrogen ions Caused by: oral consumption of HCO3. Tums/baking soda. Loss of H and Cl from: NV, suctioning, elevated aldosterone.
SS Metabolic Alkalosis Anorexia, NV, confusion, Carpopedal spasms, Hypertonic reflexes, tetany, decrease in respiratory rate and death, headache.
Treatment of Metabolic Alcalosis K+ replacement, NaCl IV to replace volume,
Hypoxia is less than 95% on the pulse oximeter and low oxygen of the hemoglobin and results in Restless, tachycardia, Anxiety, Tachycardia.
Hypercapnia Excess carbon dioxide in the blood
Route of inspired air through respiratory structures nose - sinuses - turbinate bones - pharynx - larynx - trachea - bronchi - alveoli - lungs.
Fluoroscopy views thoracic cavity in motion
O2 Humidification The upper respiratory system is designed to moisturize and warm the air that is inspired through the nose. Humidity is necessary in the respiratory tract to prevent secretions from becoming ispissated (thickened and dried) which irritates the mucosa.
Humidifiers creat water vapor to raise the relative humidity of inspired gas to 100%
Aerosol therapy (breathing treatments used to liquefy and mobilize respiratory secretions and to deliver medications. Delivered by nebulizer. May require deep breathing and coughing. posturual drainage. percussion/vibration/suctioning.
Intermittent positive pressure breathing treatments. used to achieve max lung expansion. Delivers humidified gas with positive pressure which forces air into lungs with inhalation. Used for specific conditions: atelectasis. Decreased lung compliance. and cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
Part of brain that controls ventilation Controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongota and pons.
Adventious Breath Sounds Crackles, wheezing, sneorous, friction rub
VQ Scan Ventilation and Perfusion Scan. Detect patterns of blood flow through the lungs and patterns of air movement and distro int he lungs. Looks at ration of Vent and Perf. Any area receiving Vent should also receive perf. and vice versa.
Chief purpose of VQ Scan is to diagnose Pulmonary Emobolism. Also done to diagnose cancer, copd, and pulmonary edema
Postural Drainage The technique of positioning the pt to facilitate gravitational movement respiratory tract secretions toward the bronchi and trachea for expectoration.
Contraindication of POstural drainage experience of heart rate > 120bpm / dysrhythmias / HTN, hypotension / dizziness / signs of hypoxemia
Hypoxemi Low oxygen in blood
O2 administration for pt with COPD 1-3 liters only monitor for complications
Pulmonary angiography Pt Teaching May feel pressure at site - May have bleeding at site - You will feel warm flushed feeling and the urge to cough is expected.
Pulmonary Angiography Radioisotope study that allows the MD to assess the arterial circulation of the lungs. Radiography catheter is advanced into the pulmonary artery through an arm vein while dye is injected into the femoral artery
Lung Scans VQ scan
Vesicular Breath Sounds produced by air movement in bronchioles and alveoli; have long inspiration and short expiration
Pharyngitis Inflammation of the throat, highly contagious, spread by inhalation or direct droplet contamination
Pharyngitis treatments antibiotic therapy after c&s for 7-10 days. PCN drug of choice. Erythromycin if allergy to PCN.
Respiratory assessment mental status WITH SOB. Using accessory muscles to breathe? Shape of chest (barrel chest). Skin Color.
Bronchial Breath sounds Produced by air movement thouigh the trachea, heard over the trachea and are loud with long expiration.
Trach Suctioning May be required if excessive secretions accumulate in tracheal airway.
The goal of trach suctioning is to improve oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in the lungs by removing excessive mucus secretions with a suction catheter.
Key points of trach suctioning sterile. admin oxygen nbefore inserting the suction catheter because it temporarily obstructs the patients airflow.
Trach suctioning. Only SUCK when withdrawing the catheter. Limit to 10 seconds. Rest. Repeat.
Assess tracheotomy every 2 hours for mucous and listen to the airway.
Nursing Intervention for client on ventilator Goals: improve respirations. Maintain patent airway. Communicate needs to others.
Nursing assessment for client on vent vital signs. abgs. pulseox. response to respiratory support amd complications. mental status. breathing patterns. humidifier. maintain patent airway. bite blocks. turn q2hours. ROM. TED. oral care. emo support. alt method of communcation
Norsing care of extubated client emergency equipment at bedside. High-fowlers or semi-fowlers position to keep from aspirating easiest to breath. assess for: laryngeal edema. increased respiratory distress. and LOC changes.
Respiratory meds to avoid if pt has hypertension Decongestants
Meds to avoid after nasal surgeriess ASA, ibuprofen, alcohol, tobacco
POsition to have maximum lung capacities sitting or standing upright
Aspiration shrimps go into the right lung
The amount of CO2 the lungs need to expel is determined by what in the blood amount of hydrogen ions
Antihistamines do what to treat respiratory infections dry out secretions - temporarily relieving symptoms
Purposes of endotracheal tube maintain an open airway
trach care supine or low fowlers position - maintain aspetic technique
Laryngeal cancer Risk factors curable if detected early. most common in 50-70 years of age. cause is unknown. can be caused by tobacco, alcohol, industreial pollutants. chronic laryngitis, habitual overuse of voice, heredity,
Tracheostomy complications infection, bleeding, airway obstruction, aspiration,. injury to laryngeal nerve, erosion of trachea, fistula formation between esophagus and trach, penetration of posterior trach wall
What to assess for after pt extubated laryngeal edema, increased respiratory distress, LOC changes
SS Laryngeal obstruction trauma causes neck swelling, bruising, and tenderness, stridor, high pitched sound heard during respiration, dysphagia, hoarseness, hemoptysis, if not corrected swelling can lead to total obstruction.
Acute sinus infection nursing interventions increase fluids, rest, nutrition, antipyretics, analgesics, antihistamines, humidifier, NO antibiotics or antivirals.
Post care Sinus surgery No blowing nose, no lifting > 10lbs, avoid valsalva 10-14days, avoid smokey places,
SS of sleep apnea snoring, absence of breathing ~ 10 seconds, waking self with loud and hard snorts, daytime fatigue, HA upon rising in AM, sore throat, enuresis, erectile dysfunction, restless sleep, trouble concentrating, irritability, forgetfulness
Post care of tonsil and adenoidectomy semi-fowlers position, ice collar to prevent swelling, monitor for frequent swallowing, fluids, assess respiratory distress, dyspnea, restlessness, cyanosis
epistaxis aka nosebleed. ruprture of tiny capillaries in the nasal mucous membrane. most commonly in the kiesselbachs area.
epistaxis can be caused by trauma, infection, htn, nasal tumors, blood dyscrasias, oxygen therapy
SS of epistaxis inspection of the nares reveals the area of bleeding, deviation, and foreign bodies if present.
treatment for epistaxis dependent and the location and severity of bleeding. direct pressure to the nares 5-10mins. with head slightly forward. ice packs to the nose. nasal packing with cotton tampon. cauterization with silver nitrate
nursing management of epistaxis monitor VS, assess for continued bleeding, itiiation of above measures to control bleeding, emotional support
SS of allergic rhinitis nasal stuffiness and dryness, sneezing, runny nose, clear nasal discharge, ha, sore throat, lethargy, fatigue, severe cases: chills and fever
Created by: christinego