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NURS 350 patho

Nervous system/brain

QuestionAnswer
from which vertebrae does the sympathetic ns emerge T1 - L2
from where does the parasympathetic ns emerge Cranial nerves III, VII,IX and X spinal nerves S2,3,4
what are the names of cranial nerves III, VII and IX and X oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus
what are the support cells of CNS astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal
what are support cells of PNS astrocytes, Schwann cells, microglia, ependymal cells
function of astrocytes - tradtional contacts between neurons and vessels, form BBB, transport waste and nutrients, scar forming cells of CNS
function of astrocytes - recent critical role in neuron development/survival, plasticity, mediate neuron recovery (scar tissue CNS), antioxidant defense, tight junctions in BBB
what cell function is usually aletered in most brain pathologies astroctye
function of oligodendrocytes CNS myelin sheath, neurilemma
function of Schwann cells PNS myelin sheath, neurilemma
function of microglia phagocytic cellular debris
function of ependymal cells line ventricles/choroid plexuses --> CSF
What types of nervous tissue can possibly be repaired PNS under right circumstances. CNS repair generally not possible. limited by glial cells acting as 'glue'
factors influencing PNS nerve regeneration location of injury (further away from soma, more likely), type of injury (crushed more likely than cut), inflammatory response/scarring
what factors LIMIT PNS nerve regeneration myelin differences, increased scar formation
4 general regions of CNS forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord
4 general structures in forebrain cerebral hemispheres, cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus
3 general structures of midbrain Tectum (ceiling of midbrain, which houses corpora quadrigemina --> superior/inferior colliculi), cerebral peduncles, tegmentum (think floor of midbrain)
What two structures in brain are bundles of myelinated white matter corpus callosum, cerbral peduncles
3 general structures of hindbrain cerebellum, pons, medulla
What region of the brain houses the reticular formation the brainstem; invovling midbrain, pons and medulla
What is reticular formation collection of nerve bodies (nuclein) in brainstem
2 functions of reticular formation vital reflexes (CV/resp) and wakefulness via reticular activating system (RAS)
what comprises the cerebral cortex peripheral gray matter (cell bodies)and underlying white matter (myelinated fibers)
What is the corpus callosum wide bundle of axons just beneath cortex, largest white matter structure in brain
What is function of corpus callosum connects cerebral hemispheres and mediates communication between them
What is notable about the central sulcus it divides primary somatic motor (anterior) from the primary somatic sensory (posterior)
What are the 4 lobes of the brain frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
main functions of frontal lobe conscious thought, mood, social
main functions of parietal lobe integrate sensory, sensory association, part of Wernickes here
main functuions of temporal lobe primary auditory, secondary sensory association, part of wernickes, smell/sound/complex stimuli (faces, scenes)
main functions of occipal lobe light, vesion. if lesioned here --> hallucinations
where is the primary somatic motor region located in the frontal lobe, just anterior to the central sulcus
where is the primary somatic sensory region located in the parietal lobe, just posterior to the central sulcus
In what two lobes are Wernickes parietal and temporal lobes
where is broca's in the prefrontal region of the frontal lobe
What region receives/understand's speech wernicke's in the temporal/parietal lobe
what region delivers speech brocas in the prefrontal of fronal lobe
The forebrain can be divided into these embryonic structures telencepelon, diencephalon
what structures are in the telencephalon of the forebrain cerebral hemispheres, cerebral cortex, cerebrum, limbic system, basal ganglia
what structures are in the diencephalon of the forebrain thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus
where is the basal ganglia and their function located in telencephalon of forebrain -->gray areas of cerebrum that fine tune motor movement
where is the thalaums and its function diencephalone of forebrain-->integration center for afferent impulses destined for cerebral cortex
where is the hypothalamus and its function diencephalon of forebrain --> homeostasis, behavioral pattern implementation
where is the epithalamus and its function diencephalon of forebrain --> pineal gland for circadian rhythms, involved in limbic system
where is subthalamus and its function diencephalon of forebrain --> motor activity
what is the prefrontal area involved with concentration, memory, thought elaboration, inhibition of limbic/vegetative areas
what areas of the body are most represented by the primary somatic sensory area (homunculus) hand, face, tongue (most senstivie organs have most neuronal action0
what areas of the primary somatic motor area are most represented those invoving more complex movement like hand, fingers and tongue (used for speech)
where are basal ganglia located and what do they do in the forebrain (telencephalon) - gray areas deep within white areas of cerebrum --> motor fine tuning
what diseases result due to damage of basal ganglia Parkinson's and Huntington's (chorea = involuntary 'dancing' type movement)
Limbic system consists of which structures hippocampus, amygdala, portions of thalamus, limbic cortex, fornix
function of limbic system primitive emotion/behaviors, smell (close proximity to olfactory bulbs), biological rhythms
what mediatates limbic response connections between limbic system and prefontal cortex, which modulates the limbic response to more appropriate one
what parts of the brain are involved with motor function primary/motor association, subthalamus, cerebellum
what comprises the midbrain corpora quadrigmina (sup/inf colliculi), tegmentum (includes red nucleus, substantia niagra), cerebral peduncles
what is red nucleus function main output of basal ganglia
what does substantia niagra do makes dopamine (hence its involvement in Parkinson's)
In the midbrain, what comprises the tegmentum red nucleus, substantia niagra, cerebral peduncles
What is the hindbrain composed of pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
function of cerebellum reflexive, involuntary motor refinement, balance/posture
function of pons respiratory center relays info from cerebellum to brainstem (similar to corpus collosum)
functions of medulla oblongata heart rate, respiration, cough/sneeze, swallow/vomit
Created by: lorrelaws