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NUR 105-chpt 42

Antifungal Drugs

Drugs used to treat infedtions caused by fungi; can be systemic or topical Antifungal drugs
Fungi can be broken down into two groups. Name them. Yeasts and Molds
Fungal infections are also known as: Mycoses
True or False: Some fungi are part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestines, and vagina. True
Which type of fungi are single celled, reproduce by budding, and can be used in baking and found in alcoholic beverages. Yeasts
Which type of fungi are mulitcellular and characterized by long, branching filaments called hyphae Molds
What are the four types of mycotic infection? Cutaneous, subcutaneous, supeficial, and systemic
Fungi that cause integumentary infections (cutaneous, subcutaneous, and superficial) are called: dermatophytes
True or False: systemic fungal infections don't usually occur in an immunocompromised host and therefore are not life threatening. False
Candida albicans can colonize as a result of: using antibiotics, antineoplastics, or immunosuppresants such as corticosteroids
What is thrush (oral candidasis? Candida albicans growing in the mouth, usually in infants and immunocompromised patients
Vaginal candidiasis, also known as a yeast infection, is found in what patients? pregnant women, women with diabetes mellitus, women taking oral contraceptives
True or False. Vaginal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection. True
Amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, etc are examples of antifungal drugs that treat what type of infection? systemic
Clotrimazole, miconazole nystatin are examples of antifungal drugs that are administered how? topically
What are some contraindications to antifungal drugs? liver failure, renal failure, drug allergies
Which is the drug of choice for treating severe antifungal infections? amphotericin B
What are the main concerns of the contraindications of amphotericin B? renal toxicity and neurotoxicity
What are some adverse effects of Fluconazole (diflucan)? nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, stomach pain, dizziness, if in IV form, can cause tissue necrosis
Griseofulvin has adverse effects. what are they? rash, urticaria, headache, nausea, vomitting, anorexia
What are many antifungal drugs metabolized by in the liver? cytochrome P-450
Before beginning therapy, what must be done? assess for hypersensitivity, possible contraindications, obtain baseline VS,ECG,etc, assess for other meds used (prescribed and OTC), follow manufacturers directions, montior VS that recieve IV infusions, monitor I's and O's
By pretreating with with an antipyretic (acetaminophen), antihistamine, and antimetic, the severity of the infusion related rxns of ___________ are reduced. amphotericin B
True or False. Some oral forms of antifungal drugs should be given with meals, while others on an empty stomach, so directions should be followed accordingly. True
When given as an oral losenge or troche, ____________ should be slowly and completely dissolved in the mouth. (not chewed or swallowed. Nystatin
A nystatin suspension should be swished quickly and quickly swallowed. True or False. False. Should be swished thoroughly in the mouth as long as possible before swallowing.
The nurse is assessing a pt who is about to receive antifungal drug therapy. which problem would be of most concern? A) Endocrine disease B) Hepatic disease C) Cardiac disease D) Pulmonary disease (b)
While monitoring a pt who is receiving intravenous amphotericin B, the nurse expects to see which adverse effect(s)? A) hypertension B) bradycardia C) fever and chills D) diarrhea and stomach cramps (c)
When administering antifungal drug therapy, the nurse knows that a problem that contributes to many of the drug interactions with antifungals is: A) polyuria B) gallbladder metabolism C) bone distribution D) cytochrome P-450 enzyme system (d)
During an infusion of amphotericin B, the nurse knows that which administration technique may be used to minimize infusion-related adverse effects? A) forcing of fluids during infusion B)infusing the medication quickly C) infusing the medication over a longer period of time D) Stopping the infusion for 2 hrs after half of the bag has infused, then resuming 1 hour later. (c)
When the nurse is teaching a pt who is taking nystatin lozenges for oral candidasis, which instruction by the nurse is correct? A) chew the lozenge before swallowing B) dissolve the lozenge slowly and completely in your mouth C) dissolve the lozenge until it is half the original size, then swallow it D) lozenges should be swallowed whole with a glass of h20 (b)
When monitoring a pt who is receiving caspofungin, the nurse should look for which serious adverse effects? A)blood dyscrasias B)hypotension C)cardiac palpations D)Tinnitus E)Hepatotoxicity (a,b,e)
This antifungal drug is used for severe systemic infections, can be toxic at therapeutic does, can cause fever & chills, seizures, anemia, hypokalemia, thrombophlebitis Amphotericin B
How does amphotericin B work? binds to ergosterol in fungal membrane/causes leakage
What 2 antifungal drugs disrupts fungal cell membrane, used for problems of nails and scalp, can cause anorexia, diarrhea, stomach pain and a change in taste. Terbinafine Lamisil
What antifungal drugs bind to sterols in fungal cell membrane, fungistatic & fungicidal, used for oral and vaginal candidiasis and can cause diarrhea Nystatin
What antifungal drug inhibits fungal mitosis, used for dermatophytes of hair, skin, & nails and can cause hepatoxicity, photosensitivity, altered taste, decreased memory & judgement Griseofulvin
What 3 antifungal drugs block synthesis of ergosterol, used as broad spectrum for vaginal infections and may cause hepatoxicity, itching, rashes, can inhibit steroid/drug metabolism fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole
True or False. Griseofulvin abosorption is improved when taken with a fatty meal. True
Created by: jessicaspring