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coronary artery circulation systemic circulation that supplies the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients and removes waste
cardiac output (CO) stroke volume X heart rate
stroke volume amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction
diffusion process for the exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli and the capillaries of the body tissue
Hypovelmia fluid loss = increased heart rate and peripheral vasoconstriction
Increased Metabolic Rate decreases oxygen demand = increased in carbon dioxide in the body
dysrhythmias deviation from the normal sinus heart rhythym
Valvular heart disease acquired or congenital disorder of a cardiac valve, characterized by stenosis or regurgitation of blood
stenosis an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure
angina pectoris transient imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand
myocardial ischemia supply of blood to the myocardium from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands
myocardial infarction (heart attack) sudden decrease in coronary blood flow or an increase in myocardial oxygen demand without adequate coronary perfusion
hyperventilation a state of ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by cellular metabolism
hypoventilation occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient carbon dioxide
atelectasis collapse of the alveoli, prevents the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide - results in hypoventilation
hypoxia inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level
causes of hypoxia 1) ↓ hemoglobin level & ↓ O2-carrying capacity of the blood 2) diminished concentration of inspired O2 3) inability of tissue to extract oxygen from the blood 4) ↓ diffusion of O2 from alveoli to blood 5) poor tissue perfusion with O2 blood
cyanosis blue discoloration of skin and mucous membranes caused by the presence of desaturated hemoglobin in capillaries (late stage of hypoxia)
sputum mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways
diastole chambers fill
systole chambers empty
inspiration The inhalation of air into the lungs; active process
expiration the act of expelling air from the lungs; passive process
orthopnea shortness of breath when lying flat
Created by: chinkychunsa