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# Thermals Exam 1

### RPI Thermals and Fluids Exam 1 Vocab

Thermodynamics The science of the conversions between forms of energy and their relations to the macroscopic measurable quantities
Heat Transfer Transmission of thermal energy from a hotter object to a cooler object via conduction, convection, or radiation
Control Volume Arbitrary volume where mass and energy flow through
System A flexible, fixed or moving boundary that encloses the same particles at all times
Closed System Also called controlled mass system (no mass can cross boundary)
Open System Also called Control Volume (mass and energy can cross boundary)
Isolated System no mass or energy can cross boundary
First Law of Thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed only transformed
Specific Heat The energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of substance by one degree
Ideal Solids and Liquids Does not change volume with temperature, cannot be compressed
Dimension Physical Quality
Units Magnitudes assigned to dimensions
Extensive Properties The value of an overall system is the sum of its values for the parts into which the system is divided
Property Macroscopic characteristic of a system to which a numerical value can be assigned without the knowledge of the history of the system
Fluid Mechanics The study of fluids at rest or in motion and the interactions between a solid and a fluid either flowing past or acting on the solid in some manner
Boundary or Control Surface Drawn around the system for the identification
Surroundings Everything outside the boundary
Process occurs when some property changes or energy flows
Unsteady/ Transient Properties of interest are different at start and finish
Steady Property does not vary with time only location
Schematic diagram Shows relationship and interactions
Assumption Used to simplify a problem
Conduction Caused by molecular vibrations
Convection Moving fluid flows past a solid of a different temp
Radiation Occurs in a vacuum, transfer via electromagnetic waves
Multimode Multiple types of heat transfer used in one system
Thermal Resistance Resistance to heat transfer
Hydro statics Fluids at rest
Fluid Dynamics Relative motion between fluid and solid
Fluid A substance that will deform is a shear force is applied
Temperature Measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules
Polytropic Process Relationship between pressure and volume
Isobaric Process Constant Pressure
Isothermal Process Constant Temperature
Continuum Assumption Characterize the material as if it were infinitely divisible and not composed of discrete molecules
Pressure The force of the combined motion of many molecules
Heat Energy in motion across the boundary of a system
Internal Energy Energy is stored in a system
Equilibrium A state in which there are no imbalances in forces, temps, pressures, phases or chemical composition
Quasi Equilibrium one that passes through states of equilibrium (very slow process)
Biot Number The ratio of conductive resistance to convective resistance
Fourier's Law of Conduction Heat flows from hot to cold based on thermal Conductivity
Black Surface Ideal Surface for radiation - one that absorbs all the radiation incident upon it
Gray Surface If a fraction of the incident radiation reflected by the surface is independent of the wavelength of the incident radiation
Diffuse Surface if the fraction of the incident radiation does not depend on the angle of incident
Resistance analogy Heat transfer rate is proportional to the temperature difference
Lumped System Approximation If two thermal resistances are being used and one is much larger than the other
Fourier Number Ratio of the rate at which heat is conducted through a body to the rate at which it is stored
Created by: EllieCohen