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Quarter 1 Week 6

Vocabulary from Quarter 1 Week 6

Evolution A process that organisms go through in which they change over time and develop new species from pre-existing ones.
Gene Frequency genetic composition (make-up),in a population over a period of time
Variation Every individual in a population has a slightly different genetic composition.
Gene Pool all genes carried by all individuals in a population
Speciation the evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by one species that divides into two or more species that are genetically unique
Asexual Reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only
Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction combines alleles from two different individuals and crossing over occurs during meiosis. Therefore, genetic variability is much greater in populations who reproduce sexually. DNA comes from both mom and dad.
Lamarck Scientists who thought changes were acquired during the life of a parent organism and transmitted to offspring when they reproduced. Ex: a hungry giraffe would stretch it’s neck longer, and then would give birth to a baby giraffe with a longer neck.
Darwin Scientist who developed the theory of natural selection (“survival of the fittest” - favorable traits become more common in successive generations and unfavorable traits disappear), which is accepted today.
Survival of the Fittest The idea that species adapt and change by natural selection with the best suited mutations becoming dominant.
Natural Selection The process, according to Darwin, by which organisms best suited to survival in their environment achieve greater reproductive success, thereby passing favorable genetic characteristics on to future generations.
Genetic Drift Random events causing gene frequencies to fluctuate, which could cause the eventual elimination of the genes in the gene pool of that population (generally occurs in small populations.
Immigration the appearance of new individuals in a population – adds new genes into the gene pool
Emigration individuals leave a population and move into a different environment where new adaptations occur and possibly the formation of a new species.
Mutation changes in DNA that could benefit, harm or have no effect on an individual. A mutation increases variation among individuals. If the mutation occurs in sex cells, it will be passed to the next generation.
Competition the struggle between organisms of the same or different species for limited resources such as food or light
Natural Variation are variations that result from sources that are normal and expected. These changes are predictable over time, a natural process.
Adaptation change to suit environment: the development of physical and behavioral characteristics that allow organisms to survive and reproduce in their habitats
Homologous Body Structures Features that have similar structure, function, or both due to a close evolutionary relationship, but have drastically different functions
Ethics a guiding philosophy, or a discipline of dealing with what is good and bad.  It is a moral obligation of sorts or principals on how to conduct ones self.
Genetic Engineering scientists change genetic material that give it qualities that are desireable to humans.  Involves artificial DNA.  Used for higher crop production, larger fruits and vegetables,  new varities of fruits and vegetables, disease resistance.
Gene Therapy medical treatment by replacing a defective gene with a functional gene
Artificial Insemination fertility treatment used with individuals who may not be able to have offspring using traditional methods. Helps with increasing population of endangered species.
Cloning reproducing an organism through asexual processes creating offspring identical to parent.
Selective Breeding selecting plants and animals with the most desirable traits and breeding them to produce offspring
Stem Cell Research using unspecialized cells that can change into other types of specialized cells.  The cells can be found in human embryos.  Can help with major disorders and organ transplants.
Informed Consent Consent by a patient to a surgical or medical procedure or participation in a clinical study after achieving an understanding of the relevant medical facts and the risks involved.
Created by: mathewsecot