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NUR 317 infancy

Infant Development

QuestionAnswer
differentiate between health promotion and health maintenance. Health promotion is a process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants thereby improving health. Health maintenance is maintaining a person's present state and preventing disease or injury occurence
What is the most common accident in infancy? aspiration of foreign bodies
Who is Erik H Erikson? Erik H Erikson is a theorist who studied Freud and further developed his theory. He included social and cultural influences. there are 8 stages in Erikson's theory
what are the stages of Erikson's theory? INFANT: Trust vs Mistrust. TODDLER: autonomy vs shame and doubt. PRESCHOOLER: initiative vs guilt. SCHOOL AGE: industry vs inferiority. ADOLESCENT: identity vs. role confusion.
What is the significant other according to Erikson to an infant? maternal person
what is the foundation for all future development of an infant? trust
Sigmund Freud believed that an individuals personality consisted of 3 parts: what 3 parts? id, ego, superego.
what is superego? the division of the psyche that censors and restrains the ego and has identified itself unconsciously with important persons from early life. It results from incorporating the values and wishes of these persons into one's own standards.
what is id? the division of the psyche that is totally unconscious and serves as the source of instinctual impulses and demands for immediate satisfaction of primitive needs.
what is ego? the division of the psyche that is conscious, most immediately controls thought and behavior, and mediates between the person and external reality.
what are Freud's stages? Oral -> anal -> phallic -> latency -> genitalia
Who is Lawrence Kohlberg? Moral Development - development of right and wrong
who worked to study moral development? Lawrence Kohlberg
What did Piaget study? Cognitive development
who studied cognitive development? Piaget
which theorist used his own children for his studies? Piaget
What were Piaget's stages? (1) Sensorimotor (2) Preoperational thoughts (3) concrete operational thoughts (4) formal operational thoughts
what ages correspond to Paget's stage Sensorimotor? Birth to 2 years
What occurs during Piaget's stage: Sensorimotor? Development of intellect and knowledge of the environment gained throughout the uses of SENSES. development progresses from reflexive activities to purposeful acts. object permanence
What ages correspond to Piaget's stage preoperational thought? 2-7 years
What occurs during Piaget's stage: Preoperational thought thought EGOCENTRISM, magical thinking, language ability increases
What occurs during Piaget's Concrete operational thoughts stage? thought process is more concrete and logical. they are still somewhat self-centered, they cannot think abstractly [no big picture]
what ages correspond with Piaget's Concrete operational thought stage? 7-11 years
what ages correspond with Piaget's Formal operational thought stage 12-15
What occurs during Piaget's Formal operational thought stage? adaptable, flexible, abstract thinking, form conclusions
How do infants grow (physically and developmentally)? 3 things. cephalocaudal (head to toe). Proximodistal (middle out). And simple to complex
What is mental age and when is it used? Mental age is an adjusted age. It is determined by taking the chronological age and subtracting #weeks preterm. It is used from 6 months until 2 years. (should NOT be used before 6 months)
What is bone age? Bone age is the use of x-rays of metatarsals/metacarpals to look for ossification.
What test is used nowadays for determining developmental age? Ages and Stages
When is Ages and Stages used? 0-5 years old
What does Ages and Stages assess? communication, gross/fine motor, problem solving, personal social skills
how is Ages and Stages used? it is given to parents to fill out based on their perception of their child. This is a screening and tracking system developed to ID children at risk.
What will you see in an infants weight at 6 months? doubled birth weight
What will you see in an infants weight at 1 year? tripled birth weight
what will you see in height at 1 year? birth height increased by 50%
do infants grow steadily or in spurts? spurts
1 lb = ______ grams 454
What physical accomplishment occurs between 2-3 months? lifting head/chest
What physical accomplishment occurs between 5-6 months? rolling over
when does an infant life his head/chest? 2-3 months
when does an infant roll over? 5-6 months
What physical accomplishment occurs between 6-7 months? crawling
What physical accomplishment occurs at 8 months? sitting alone. Grasping thumb and forefinger
What physical accomplishment occurs at 9 months? Creeping
when does an infant begin crawling? 6-7 months
when does an infant begin to sit alone? 8 months
when does an infant grasp his thumb and forefinger? 8 months
when does an infant begin creeping? 9 months
when does an infant walk with assistance? 11 months
What physical accomplishment occurs at 11 months? walking with assistance
What physical accomplishment occurs at 12 months? walking alone
when does an infant begin walking with assistance? 11 months
when does an infant begin to walk alone? 12 months
when do you see the first primary tooth? 6 months
when should the complete primary set of teeth be in? 2.5 years
when should the first secondary tooth be in? 6 years
what are the first teeth that come in? the lower central incisors
how many teeth should you see by the end of the first year? 6-8
when does the posterior fontanel close? 2-3 months
when does the anterior fontanel close? 12-18 months
what is the HR for newborn-3months? 80-180
what is the HR for age 3 months-2 years? 80-150
what is the respiratory rate for infants? 30-40
what is the BP for infants? 70-55
when does the parachute reflex appear? disappear? the Parachute reflex appears between 7-9 months and persists indefinitely
when does the rooting rflx appear? disappear? The rooting rflx appears at BIRTH and disappears around 3-4 months.
when does the extrusion rflx appear? disappear? the extrusion reflex appears at birth and disappears around 4 months
when does the palmar grasp rflx appear? disappear? the palmar grasp appears at birth and disappears by 3 months. it is replaced by voluntary mvmt
when does the plantar grasp reflex appear? disappear? the plantar grasp appears at birth and lessens by 8 months.
when does the babinski rflx appear? disappear? the babinski reflex appears at birth and disappears after 1 year. it should DEFINITELY BE GONE by 18 months
when does the moro rflx appear? disappear? the moro rflx appears at birth and disappears after 3-4 months. it is usually strongest during the first 2 months.)
when does the tonic neck rflx appear? disappear? the tonic neck rflx appears at birth and disappears after 3-4 months. it is replaced by symmetric positioning of both sides of the body.
when does the trunk incurvation (galant) rflx appear? disappear? the Galant rflx appears at birth and disappears by 4 weeks.
what is the Trunk incurvation/Galant rflx? the Galant rflx is when you stroke an infant's back alongside the spine and it causes the hips to move upward stimulated side
when does the dance rflx appear?disappear? the dance reflex appears at birth and disappears after 3-4 weeks. it is replaced by deliberate movement
when does the crawl reflex appear? disappear? the crawl reflex appears at birth and disappears after 6 weeks.
which reflexes disappear after 3-4 months? Rooting, Moro, Tonic neck
when does an infant begin vocalization? an infant begins to vocalize at 5-6 weeks
when does an infant begin vowel sounds? 2 months
when does an infant begin to make consonant sounds? 3-4 months
when does an infant make words? 8 months
by 12 months, where should an infant be in language development? by 12 months, an infant should be vocalizing 2-5 words that have meaning besides mama and dada.
in what order should foods be introduced to an infant? rice -> cereal -> fruits/veggies -> meats -> egg yolk
when can a baby begin to drink whole milk? 12 months
how often should breastfeeding occur? newborn = q1-2 hours. infant = q2-4/6 hours
when are fingerfoods introduced? 6-7 months
when are chopped table foods introduced? 9-12 months
when should an infant be drinking juice out of a cup? 12 months
when should you be concerned about nutrition in an infant? (8 things) (1) not gaining weight (2) spits up forcefully (3) spits up more than a small amt (4) spits up green/brown fld (5) fewer than normal diapers (6-8/day) (6) lethargic (7) s/s illness
what kind of play do infants participate in? solitary play
what is the goal of toys for infants? physical development
what are some good colors for infant toys that will provide visual stimulation? red black and white
what are some good visual toys for infants? mirrors, brightly colored pictures
what are some good activities for auditory stimulation in an infant? singing/talking
what are some good toys for auditory stimulation? musical toys such as bells
what is a good activity to participate in with your infant to provide kinetic stimulation? walking with infant
what are some good toys to provide kinetic stimulation to an infant? cradel gym, push/pull toys
what are 4 areas of safety to focus on for infants? (1) prevention of aspiration of foreign objects (2) prevention of falls (3) prevention of poisoning (4) promotion of motor vehicle safety
what are 4 major causes for concern in infants 1-3 months? (1) no response to loud noise (2) no babbling (3) no grasping of small objects (4) eyes closed most of the tiem
what are 5 major causes for concern in infants 4-12 months? (1) stiff/floppy (2) no babbling (3) no grasping small objects (4) eyes crossed most of the time (5) does not recognize own hands
Created by: 1398660434