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Adult 1 Pain Manag.

pain management

How to define pain? whatever the person experiencing the pain says it is, existing wherever the person says it does
What is a definition of pain? an unpleasant sensory & emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
How is pain described? Subjective, its the patients experience and self report
Some populations may have problems with self report so what must you do? observe non verbal cues too to help assist in pain assessment
The neural mechanism by which pain is perceived consists of 4 physiological processes. What are they? transduction, transmission, perception, modulation
What interrupts the pain pathway during transduction? nsaids, local anesthetics, anti-seizure agents, corticosteroids
what interrupts the pain pathway during transmission? opioids
what interrupts the pain pathway during perception? opioids, nsaids, adjuvants
What interrupts the pain pathway during modulation? tricyclic antidepressants
what are the two ways pain is classified if based on underlying pathology? Nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain
what are the two ways pain is classified is based on duration? acute, chronic
what is nociceptive pain? pain caused by damage to somatic or visceral tissue
what are examples of nociceptive pain? pain from surgical incision, arthritis, cardiac ischemia
what are the two types of nociceptive pain? somatic pain and visceral pain
what is somatic pain? aching or throbbing pain, very well localized... it arises from bones, joints, muscles, skin, or connective tissue
what is visceral pain? pain which results from stimuli (ex. tumor involvement or obstruction).. it arises from internal organs such as intestine or bladder
what is neuropathic pain? caused by damage to nerve cells or abnormal processing of sensory input.. described as burning, shooting, stabbing or electric in nature
does acute pain last long? is it sudden? No it is of short duration, and it has a sudden onset
what is acute pain? course of pain decreases over time and goes away as recovery occurs. includes postop pain, labor pain, trauma pain.
how do you treat acute pain? analgesics for symtom control, and also treat underlying cause
how do you treat neuropathic pain? antidepressants
how do you treat nociceptive pain? nonopioids or opioids
how does acute pain activate manifestations that reflect sympathetic ns? increase heart rate, increase respiratory rate, increase bp
what can unresolved acute pain cause? prolonged hospitalization, increase complications of immobility, delay rehab, decrease a patients focus on goal in get better
what is chronic pain? last longer than expected, any pain that last more than 3 months
do you always know the cause of chronic pain? no
how is chronic pain characterized? by periods of waxing and waning
what are the two types of chronic pain? non-cancer, cancer
what is chronic non-cancer pain? long term pain, 25% population, considered non-life threatening but causes psychosocial distress
what are examples of chronic non-cancer pain? R.A., lupus, headache, low back pain, arthritis, myofacial pain, peripheral neuropathy
what is chronic cancer pain? 2/3 of patients with advanced cancer have it, treat with oral opioids, from cancer bone mets, and nerve compression
Created by: pintorac