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HCR 240-Patho

Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation? redness, swelling, heat, pain, and functional impairment
Define swelling. water in the interstitial space
Fast fibers are also called ________ and they react ____________. A-fibers; instantaneously
Slow fibers are also called _________ and they _______________. C-fibers; send signals when neighbors are injured
What is vasodilation controlled by? histamine
Parenchymal cells contain functioning cells of organ or body part
Stromal cells contain supporting connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerve fibers
Labile cells continue to regenerate, such as skin
Stable cells normally stop regenerating, such as the liver
Permanent or fixed cells cannot regenerate, replaced with fibrous scar tissue, such as nerve, skeletal and cardiac muscle cells
Is there tissue loss in primary intention (1st) healing? no tissue loss
Is there tissue loss in secondary (2nd) intention healing? yes, there is tissue loss
What are the three phases of healing? inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling
During the proliferative phase of healing, what cell is being used and what is it responsible for? fibroblast; collagen and angiogenesis
What are the three layers of the heart? pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium
What are the two layers of the pericardium? parietal and visceral
How many liters of blood are in a 70 kilo person? 5 liters
What is the MAP in the arteries? 90-100 mm/Hg
What is the MAP in the small arteries? 60-90 mm/Hg
What is the MAP in the arterioles? 40-60 mm/Hg
What is the MAP in the capillaries? 26-32 mm/Hg
What is the MAP in the veins? 0-10 mm/Hg
What is the formula to calculate cardiac output (CO)? heart rate times stroke volume (HR x SV)
What is cardiac output (CO)? the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle in the aorta in one minute
What is the normal cardiac output (CO) in a 70 kilo person? 5,040cc/min
What is stroke volume (SV)? the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle in one beat
What is the formula to calculate stroke volume (SV)? endiostolic volume minus ensystolic volume (EDV-ESV)
What is endiostolic volume (EDV)? the amount of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole
What is ensystolic volume (ESV)? the amount of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole
What is normal stroke volume (SV) in a 70 kilo person? 70cc/beat
What is the formula to calculate ejection fraction (EF)? stroke volume divided by endiostolic volume (SV√∑EDV)
What is ejection fraction (EF)? the percentage of blood that was in the left ventricle at the end of systole that was ejected into the aorta
What is a normal ejection fraction (EF)? 65-85%
What two things affect endiostolic volume (EDV)? cardiac preload and myocardial distensibility
What two things affect ensystolic volume (ESV)? cardiac afterload and myocardial contractility
What is cardiac preload? volume of blood in left ventricle at the end of diastole
What is cardiac afterload? resistance to ejection from the chamber of the heart (left ventricle)
What is myocardial contractility? speed and force of contraction
What is myocardial distensibility? willingness of myocardium to stretch
What influences myocardial distensibility the most? oxygen status (ATP status)
Created by: slarmentrout