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2/15 quiz LEC

2/15 quiz LEC - Skeletal Tissue

Skeletal Tissue functions (6) Support, Protection, Movement facilitation, Mineral Storage (CA,P), Blood Production, Store energy (fat)
Histology is the study of tissue
Connective Tissue Cell Hisology includes (3) Osteoprogenitors, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts
Osteoprogenitors UNSPECIALIZED cell in embryo from which all bones are derived. Can differentiate into osteroblasts & osteoclasts
Osteoblasts Bone-Forming cells. Become osteocytes when trapped by their own matrix
Osteoclasts Bone-Dissolving cells
Connective Tissue Matrix Hisology (2) 67% Mineral Salts & 33% Collagenous Fibers
Mineral Salts in the matrix are called Hydroxyapatite - HARD. CA & P
Collagenous Fibers in the matrix give shape
Diaphysis shaft
Epiphysis end
Articular Cartilage hyaline cartilage. covers the epiphyses.
Periosteum collagenous (dense fibrous) CT covering bone surface (but not articular cartilage)
Medullary / Marrow cavity Red marrow in children. Yellow marrow in adults.
Endosetum collagenous tissue lining marrow cavity
epiphyseal plate growth plate. cartilage in a child
Epiphyseal Line bone - in an adult
Ossification Bone Formation
Type of Ossification Intramembranous & Endochondral methods
Intramembranous & Endochondral methods appearance identical
Intramembranous Method bone made over a fibrous membrane
Endochondral Method replaces cartilage
Intramembranous Ossification (2) 1. Osteoprogenitor cells leave blood & invade fibrous membrane. 2. Oseoprogenitors become Osteoblasts & make bone. Become Osteocytes when trapped in their own bony material.
Intramembranous Ossification forms Surface skull bones & clavicles (collar)
Fontanels are soft spots of fibrous tissue not yet ossified in the skull of newborn (Intramembranous Ossification)
Osteoprogenitor cells lay down bone
Osteons are tough b/c membranous - Intramembranous Ossification?
Endochondral Ossification (1-4) 1. Most of skeleton initially cartilage covered with membranous perichondrium. 2. Blood delivers Osteoprogenitors to Diaphysis. 3. Bony collar forms 4. Cartilage cells in center diaphysis swell up & die.
Endochondral Ossification (5-8) 5. blood vessels invade delivering osteoprogenitors. 6. osteoprogenitors become osteoblasts forming promary ossification center. 7. Bone formation continues up and down diaphysis. 8. Same thing happens in epiphysis forming 2ndary ossification center
2 areas not replaced by bone in Endochondral Ossification articular cartilages & epiphyseal plates
all remaining bones formed by Endochondral Ossification
bony collar where osteoprogenitors invade
significance of cartilage being devoid of blood vessels nutrition is diffused from the blood or adjacent tissues. **HEALS SLOWLY
bone growth occurs which way and where length (end result) @ the epiphyseal plate
during bone growth, cartilage cells at the epiphyseal end proliferate (moves up - mitosis)
during bone growth, cartilage cells at the diaiphyseal end die and are replaced by bone
which happens faster? epiphyseal proliferation or diaiphyseal death during bone growth diaiphyseal death & bone replacement
when the plate disappears & what avg age? fusion --> epiphyseal line. avg age 22-23 yrs
when is bone growth in length no longer possible when fusion occurs
growth at the plate is affected by growth hormone (GH)
lack of GH (child) dwarfism
lack of GH (adult) we dont know
excess GH (child) giantism
excess of GH (adult) acromegaly
how sex hormones affect growth stimulate rapid growth at puberty & can cause early plate fusion(22-23)
castration does what lessens sex hormones - castrated man avg shorter height
growth in width (3) periostem lays down bone & endosteum destroys bone (with osteoclasts) enlarging the bone marrow cavity. (sound, strong structure)
bone is always remodeling - replacing old bone with new
why does bone remodel everything eventually wears out
Created by: la66