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Chapter 12

The Heart

QuestionAnswer
Aorta The largest artery of the body; emerges from the left ventricle; has four parts: ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta
Arrhythmia An abnormal or irregular rhythm of the heart
Atrium One of the two upper chambers of the heart that receive venous blood from the lungs or the body
Cardiac Cycle The sequence of events in one heartbeat, in which simultaneous contraction of the atria if followed by simultaneous contraction of the ventricles
Cardiac Output The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 minute; the resting average is 5 to 6 liters/min
Coronary Vessels The blood vessels that supply the myocardium with blood; emerge from the ascending aorta and empty into the right atrium
Diastole In the cardiac cycle, the relaxation of the myocardium
Ectopic Focus The initiation of a heartbeat by part of the myocardium other than the sinoatrial node
Ejection Fraction The percent of blood in a ventricle that is pumped during systole; a measure of the strength of the heart
Electrocardiogram (ECG) A recording of the electrical changes that accompany the cardiac cycle
Endocardium The simple squamous epithelial tissue that lines the chambers of the heart and cover the valves
Epicardium the serous membrane on the surface of the myocardium
Fibrillation Very rapid and uncoordinated heartbeats; ventricular fibrillation is a life-threating emergency due to ineffective pumping and decreased cardiac output
Heart Murmur An abnormal heart sound heard during the cardiac cycle; often caused by a malfunctioning heart valve
Ischemic Lack of blood to a body part, often due to an obstruction in circulation
Mediastinum The area of space between the lungs; contains the heart and great vessels
Mitral Valve The left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid valve), which prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium when the ventricle contracts
Myocardium The cardiac muscle tissue that forms the walls of the chambers of the heart
Myocardial Infarction Death of part of the heart muscle due to lack of oxygen; often the result of an obstruction in a coronary artery
Pulse The force of the heartbeat detected at an arterial site such as the radial artery
Sinoatrial Node The first part of the cardiac conduction pathway, located in the wall of the right atrium; initiates each heartbeat
Stenosis An abnormal constriction or narrowing of an opening or duct
Stroke Volume The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat; the resting average is 60-80 mL/beat
Systole In the cardiac cycle, the contraction of the myocardium; ventricular systole pumps blood into the arteries
Tricupsid valve The rigth AV valve, which prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle of the right atruim when the ventricle contracts
Venous Return The amount of blood returned by the veins to the heart; is directly related to cardiac output, which depends on adequate venous return
Ventricle One of the two lower chambers of the heart that pump bood to the body or to the lungs
During one cardiac cycle what takes place? the atria contract first, followed by contraction of teh ventricles
Backflow of blood from the ventricles to the atria is prevented by the? mitral and tricuspid valves
The outermost of the pericardial membranes is the? fibous pericardium
Each normal heartbeat is initiated by the? SA node
Backflow of blood from the arteries to the ventricles is prevented by the? aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves
The vessel into which the left ventricle pumps blood is the? aorta
The veins that return blood to the right atrium are the? superior and inferior caval veins
The heart is located where? medial to the lungs and superior to the diaphragm
The function of the serous fluid of the pericardial membranes is to? prevent friction as the heart beats
The term 'systole' means? contraction
The purpose of the coronary vessels is to? supply the heart with oxygenated blood
A normal range of heart rate for a healthy adult is _________ beats per minute. 60-80
The chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins are the? right and left atria
The endocardium lines the chambers of the heart and: is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting within the heart
The centers that regulate heart rate are located in the? medulla
The nerves that transmit impulses to decrease the heart rate are? vagus nerves
The electrical activity of the heart may be depicted in an? ECG
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 minute is called what? cardiac output
The normal heart sounds are caused by what? the closure of the valves
Changes in blood pressure are detected by what? pressoreceptors in the carotid and aortic sinuses
The hormone ANH increases the loss of ________ and ________ in urine to decrease blood volume and pressure. sodium ions, water
A heart rate below 60 bpm is called what? bradycardia
The coronary sinus receives blood directly from the? coronary veins
The first part of the cardiac conduction pathway in the ventricles is the? bundle of His
The difference between resting cardiac output and maximum exercise cardiac output is called what? cardiac reserve
The heart is ____________ to the diaphragm and ___________ to the lungs. superior, medial
The diaphragm is ____________ to the heart, and the lungs are _____________ to the heart. inferior, lateral
The area in which the heart is located is called the? mediastinum
The heart is located in the area called _____________, and is protected by the _________. mediastinum, rib cage
The outermost of the pericardial membranes is the _____________ pericardium. fibrous
The middle layer of the pericardial membranes is the ____________ pericardium. parietal
The innermost of the pericardial membranes is the ____________ pericardium. visceral
The visceral pericardium is also called what? epicardium
The function of the serous fluid of the pericardial membranes is to what? prevent friction
The lining of the chambers of the heart is called what? endocardium
The endocardium is the _________ of the heart, and its function is to _______________________. lining, prevent abnormal clotting
The myocardium forms the ______________________ of the heart. walls of the chamber
The walls of the chambers of the heart are formed by the ____________. myocardium
The layer of the heart wall that prevents abnormal clotting in the _____________. endocardium
The layer of the heart wall that pumps blood is the _____________. myocardium
The _______________________ returns blood from the upper body to the right atrium. superior vena cava
The _______________________ returns blood from the lower body to the right atrium. inferior vena cava
The __________________ returns blood from the lungs to the left atrium. pulmonary veins
The superior vena cava retruns blood from the _____________ to the ____________ of the heart. upper body, right atrium
The inferior vena cava returns blood from the _____________ to the ____________ of the heart. lower body, right atrium
The pulmonary veins return blood from the ______ to the ____________ of the heart. lungs, left atrium
The atria of the heart produce the hormone _____ when blood pressure ____________. ANP, increases
The function of ANP is to increase excretion of _____________ and _________ by the ______________. sodium ions, water, kidney's
The ________ emerges from the left ventricle and takes blood to the ________. aorta, body
The _______________ emerges from the right ventricle and take blood to the _______. pulmonary artery, lungs
The aorta takes blood from the _______ ventricle to the ______. left, body
The pulmonary artery takes blood from the _______ ventricle to the ______. right, lungs
The ventricle that has thicker walls is the ______, because it must pump blood to the _______. left, body
The left ventricle pumps blood into the _______ and the right ventricle pumps blood into the _______________. aorta, pulmonary artery
The general function of all the valves of the heart is to _______________________. prevent backflow of blood
Within the heart, backflow of blood is prevented by what? valves
The _____________ valve prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium. mitral; left AV; bicuspid
The mitral valve prevents backflow of blood from the __________ to the ___________. left ventricle, left atrium
The _____________ valve prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the rigth atrium. tricuspid; right AV
The tricuspid valve prevents backflow of blood from the ____________ to the ___________. right ventricle, right atrium
The right and left AV valves close when the _____________ contract. ventricles
The right and left AV valves prevent backflow of blood from the ____________ to the ________ when the _____________ contracts. ventricles, atria, ventricles
The aortic semilunar valve prevents backflow of blood from the ________________ to the ______________. aorta, left ventricle
The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backflow of blood from the _________________ to the _____________________. pulmonary artery, right ventricle
The aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves close when the ___________ relax. ventricles
The aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood from the ____________ to the ____________ when the ____________ relax. arteries, ventricles, ventricles
The coronary arteries are brances of the _________ and supply blood to the ____________________________. aorta, myocardium (heart muscle)
The first branches of the ascending aorta are the ____________ arteries, which take blood to the ___________. coronary, myocardium
For the myocardium, the most important substance in the blood is what? oxygen
The coronary sinus is the union of the _________________ and return blood to the ______________. coronary veins, right atrium
The term for contraction of the chambers of the heart is what? systole
The term relaxation of the chambers of the heart is what? diastole
The term systole means ___________ of the heart chambers. contraction
The term diastole means ___________ of the heart chambers. relaxation
The sequence of events in one heartbeat is called what? cardiac cycle
The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events in what? one heartbeat
During the cardiac cycle, when the ventricles are in systole, the atria are in _____________. diastole
During the cardiac cycle, when the atria are in systole, the ventricles are in ____________. diastole
During the cardiac cycle, the ________ contract first, followed by contraction of the ______________. atria, ventricles
In cardiac cycle, some passive blood flow occurs from the __________ to the ____________. atria, ventricles
In the cardiac cycle, all blood from the ventricles to the arteries must be ___________. pumped
In the cardiac cycle, the most important pumping of blood occurs from the ____________ to the ______________. ventricles, arteries
The heart is a double pump: The right side of the heart receives blood from the ______ and pumps in to the ________. body, lungs
The heart is a double pump: the left side of the heart receives blood from the _______ and pumps it to the _______. lungs, body
The part of the heart that initiates each beat is the _______. SA node
The part of the heart that initiates each beat is the _________, which is located in the ____________________. SA node, wall of the rigth atrium
The normal range of resting heart rate for a healthy adule is ____ to ____ bpm. 60, 80
The electrical impulses for the heartbeat pass from the _______ of the atria to the _____________ in the ventricles. AV node, AV bundle
The part of the cardiac conduction pathway in the ventricles, in order, are the _____________, ____________, and ___________. AV bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
The electrical activity of the heart may be seen in a tracing called? ECG, electrocardiogram
The part of the heart muscle that usually depolarizes first in a heartbeat is the _______. SA node
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in _____ minute. one
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute is called _________. cardiac output
Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in ________. one beat
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat is called what? stroke volume
To calculate cardiac output, multiply _________ times __________. stroke volume, pulse
If cardiac output is 4900 mL and pulse is 70 bpm, then stroke volume is _______. 70 mL
If sroke volume is 80 mL and pulse is 70 bpm, then cardiac output is ________. 5600 mL
If cardiac output is 6000 mL and stroke volume is 75 mL, then is _______. 80 bpm
During exercise, if pulse is 140 and the strke volume is 110 mL, the cardiac output is ________. 15,400 mL
A basketball player has a resting cardiac output of 5400 mL, a stroke volumes of 90 mL, and a resting pulse of ______. 60 bpm
A certain level of cardiac output is needed at all times to maintain a normal __________ and to deliver sufficient _________ to all tissues. blood pressure, oxygen
The difference between the resting cardiac output and the maximum cardiac output is called the _________. cardiac reserve
The percent of the blood in a ventricle that is pumped out during systole is called the _________. ejection fraction
The part of the brain that regulates heart rate is the _________. medulla
The heart rate is increased by impulses carried by ___________ nerves. sympathetic
Impulses carried by sympathetic nerves to the heart will ________ the heart rate. increase
The heart rate is decreased by impulses carried by _______________ nerves. parasympathetic; vagus
Impulses carried by the vagus nerves to the heart will _________ the heart rate. decrease
The carotid and aortic sinuses contain ______________ to detect changes in ______________. pressoreceptors, blood pressure
The carotid and aortic bodies contain ________________ to detect changes in __________________. chemoreceptors, blood oxygen level
The sensory nerves for the carotid sinus and body are the ________________ nerves. glossopharyngeal
The sensory nerves for the aortic sinus and body are the _____ nerves. vagus
The carotid sinus is strategically located to detect changes as the blood is on its way to the __________. brain
The aortic sinus is strategically located to detect changes as soon as the blood leaves the ________. heart
A sudden drop in blood pressure will stimulate the cardiac __________ center in the _________ of the brain. accelerator, medulla
The response to a sudden drop in blood pressure is a rapid ________ in heart rate, brought about by ___________ nerve impulses. increase, sympathetic
Created by: breajo2