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pharm-antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
cell-cycle specific chemotherapy drugs that are most effective during a particular phase(cycle) of the cell cycle.
cell-cycle non specific chemotherapy drugs that are independent of cell cycles.
Antimetabolites Mimic natural products that are used for DNA and RNA synthesis. Most effective during S phase and against tumors with a high growth fraction.
5-Flourouracil pharmacodynamics and C/P PD-Antimetabolite most effective during S phase. Leads to thymine deficiency. IV C-Poor nutritional status, depressed bone marrow function,serious infection. Platelet count below 100,000 cells/mm3 pyrimidinema P-use cause if woman is breast-feeding
5-Flourouracil Adverse Effects myelosuppresion, cardiotoxicity, headaches, disorientation, nystagmus. NVD. GI ulceration. brittle cracking nails, alopeica, hyperpigmentation of skin, rash.
Mitotic Inhibitors interfere with the formation of the mitotic spindle causing metaphase arrest
Vincristine(Oncovin) Pharmacodynamics and C/P PD-treats acute lymphoblastic leukemia Disrupts mitotic spindle. C-Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (absence of deep tendon reflexes), P-if bilirubin levels are elevation. High risk of extravasation. IV ONLY
Vincristine Adverse Effects loss of deep tendon reflexes, numbness and tingling, foot drop, jaw pain, weakness, constipation.
Cyclophosphamide Pharmacodynamics and C/P For testicular, ovarian, and bladder cancers alkylating agent with broad spectrum antitumor actitivy. IV and oral. adds alkyl groups to DNA and causes abnormal base pairings. C-severely compromised bone marrow function. poor renal or hepatic functions.
Cyclophosphamide Adverse Effects leukopenia. High doses=hemorrhagic cystitis-hematuria, pain,burning urination. SIADH and cardiomyophathy. NV alopecia, transverse ridging and hyperpigmentation of nails. gonadal suppression, sterility, and ovarian fibrosis. 2nd malignancy possible
Cyclophosphamide interventions Have patient drink at least 2L/day. monitor urine output 2nd malignancy more likely in younger patients. Discuss reproduction goals with patients.
Doxorubicin HCL antitumor antibiotics-intercalation btw specific base pairs=no new RNA or DNA C-myelosuppresion,severe CHF, existing cardiomyopathy. P-Hepatic insufficiency Also secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can occur
Doxorubicin adverse effects NV, suppression of bone marrow function, mucositis. alopeica and hyperpigmentation of nail beds. cardiotoxicity. risk of local necrosis if extravasation occurs. erythema, blisters, edema, skin loss, and occasionally ulcer formation.
Tamoxifen first line drug against breast cancer. highly protein bound and metabolized. antiestrogen-competes with estrogen for binding sites. c/p-known hypersensitivity to the drug, myelosuppression and pregnant or lactating
Tamoxifen adverse effects hot flashes, mild nausea, weight gain, headache, vaginal bleeding and discharge, menstrual irregularities, fluid retention, skin rash. endometrial cancer or polyps. strokes, pulmonary embolism
tamoxifen intervention monthly blood counts, annual PAP smears, regular visual tests. Have patients report signs of hypercalcemia
Penicillin used against gram + bacteria. And gram- neisseria meningitidis. Pen G not oral. Pen V oral. binds of PBP and inhibits transpeptidase so cross bridges in cell wall cannot form. C-known allergy to pen, ceph, or imipenem. P-renal disease, pregnancy
Penicillin Adverse Effects most serious-allergic reaction. NVD abdominal pain, stomatitis, sore mouth furry tongue. superinfections possible tetracyclides decrease effectiveness
cephalosporins cefazolin Similar to penicillin. Binds to PBP's and disrupts cell wall synthesis. C-known allergy P-renal failure, pregnant, lactating 5-10% chance of being allergic if also allergic to penicillin
cephalorsporin adverse effect serious-hypersensitivity common-NVD anorexia, abdominal pain, flatulence. superinfections can develop. pseudomembranous colitis potentially dangerous
Vancomycin effective against gram + bacteria. inhibits cell wall synthesis by altering cell's permeability. inhibits synthesis of RNA. C-hypersenitivity or pregnant P-lactating, renal disease,
Vancomycin adverse effects serious toxicities-ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity. "red man" syndrome due to histamine release. infuse IV slowly and avoid extravasation
Aminoglycosides-Gentamicin effective against gram- bacilli. ineffective against anaerobes.binds with 30S ribosomal subunit causes misreadings. C-preg/lact allergy P-renal or hepatic disease or myasthenia gravis
Aminoglycosides-Gentamicin adverse effects neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, depressed bone marrow function, NVD, palpations, hypotension and hpyertension
Aminoglycosides-Gentamicin interventions peak and trough drug levels monitored, monitor for signs of toxicity,
Lincosamides-Clindamycin effective against aerobic gram+ cocci. most anaerobes (gram+/-) also susceptible. Binds to bacterial ribosomes and prevents protein synthesis. C-preg/lact, allergies, heptatic/renal dysfunction P-history of ulcerative colitis or regional enteritis
Lincosamides-Clindamycin pseudomembranous colitis, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, abdominal tenderness, nausea, vomiting. rash reports signs of diarrhea immediately!
Macrolides-Erythromycin more effective against gram+. inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis. C-allergy P-hepatic insufficiency preg/lact, cardiac arrhythmias,impaired hearring
Macrolides-Erythromycin Adverse Effects hepatotoxicity, QT prolongation, pseudomembranous colitis, ventricular tachycardia, GI distress.
Tetracycline bacteriostatic, prevent cell division and replication. administered orally C-allergy P-hepatic/renal dysfunction, younger than 8. used for rickettsia, mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia, and acne. Dairy hinders absorption.
Tetracycline Adverse Effects azotemia, discoloration of teeth, nausea, vomiting, and photosensitivity.
Fluoroquinolones-Ciprofloxin effective against gram- bacteria. Not active against anaerobic organisms. Inhibits DNA gyrase so no DNA replication C-prag/lact, allergy, younger than 18. P-GI disease, renal/hepatic dysfunction, dehydration, caffeine and food slow absorption
Flouroquinolones-Cipro Adverse Effects arthropathy (joint disease) in children younger than 18, and GI discomfort (NVD)
Sulfamides-SMZ-TMP UTI, legionella, shigella, or salmonella displaces PABA and blocks synthesis of folic acid in cells C-hypersensitivity, G6PD deficiency, porphyria, urinary obstruction, less than 2 months old
Sulfamides-SMZ-TMP hematopoietic effects, crystalluria, Steven-Johnson syndrome, NVD
Antifungal-Amphotericin B Binds to sterols in fungal cell membranes. Causes cell permeability, leakage, and death. P-renal impairment, hypersensitivity
Amphotericin B Adverse Effects nephrotoxicity, infusion reactions, electrolyte abnormalities, and anemia.
Antiviral-Acyclovir effective against herpesviruses. undergoes phosphorylation and enters DNA chain and terminates DNA synthesis. C-hypersensitivity P-preg/lact, renal disease, pre-existing neurologic disorders (seizures)
Acyclovir Adverse Effects renal dysfunction, seizures, abdominal pain, headache, NV, anorexia, light-headedness
Macrodantin-Nitrofurantoin interferes with bacterial enzyme systems. C-renal impairment, younger than 1 month, preg@term. adverse effects-peripheral neuropathy, NVD, abdominal pain, pancreatitis.
Created by: kimisu07