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hemopoietic tissue can produce blood
pachyostotic bones pachy: thick, density regulation, denser than water, marine animals to stay at 1 level of water
notocord support, muscle attachment, elastic energy; pressurized cylinder surrounded by fibrous sheath; able to bend but not change shape
hydrostatic skeleton not made from 4 tissues of skeletal system; notocord, tongue, octopus arms
biomineralization the deposition of inorganic salts onto a preformed proteinicous network --> collagen, elastin, ground substance
aspidine acellular bone (osteoblasts retreat), minority
head skeleton braincase, includes gills
axial skeleton vertebral column, sternum, paired & attached - ribs, dorsal and caudal fins
appendicular skeleton paired appendages, pectoral and pelval fin, girdles
epitoxy epi: on top of, toxy: touch; salt deposited onto collagen
blast precursor cell
ameloblasts ectodermally derived, congregate and form an enamel organ that lays down enamel, mutually inductive with odontoblasts
odontoblasts neural crest ectoderm derived, produce dentine, lay down dentine and withdraw
ground substance collage and elastin embed in it --> connective tissue, mucopolysaccharides
lacunae spaces osteocyte bodies occupy
canaliculae spaces osteocyte processes occupy
metaphysis a.k.a. epiphyseal plate where shaft and end of bone meet
epiphyses ends of bone
diaphysis middle or shaft of bone
endochondral bone growth at epiphyses, cartilage --> broken down by chondroclasts --> osteoblasts invade and form bone
intramembranous or perichondral bone growth at diaphysis, collagen in dermis is scaffolding --> hydroxyapatite on top --> bone
woven bone young bone, quickly and randomly laid down, enough support for infants
lamellar bone parallel sheets of mature bone, layered, stronger, more resistant
Haversian system birds, mammals, other amniotes; osteoclasts invade old bone, blood vessels invade tunnel, osteoblasts form concentric layers around vessel; columnar osteon; mostly long bones
compact bone dense, outside of shaft
cancellous bone trabecular, spongy, interior of ends of long bones
hyaline cartilage smooth, glassy, homogeneous, ends of long bones --> template, larynx, tracheal rings
fibrocartilage lots of collagen, resistant to compression, intervertebral disks, menisci of joints
elastic cartilate lots of elastin fibers, shape forming areas (pinnae-ears, nose, epiglotis-throat)
cellular cartilage embryonic, many cells in matrix, agnathans where replaces collagen in matrix
calcified cartilage any type can become, biomineralized layer around core, chondrichthians, no osteocytes-not bone
arthrology study of joints
ligament connect bone to bone, store elastic energy
tendon connect muscle to bone, inelastic
synarthroses fused, almost no movement, sutures in skull, diaphysis and epiphyses
amphiarthroses limited motion; symphesis: dental snake, pelvic; syndesmoses: forearm rotation
diarthroses highly mobile, with capsule, ball and hinge, socket
scaling size and its consequences, bigger --> change shape
isometry geometric similarity, bigger --> don't change shape, rare in nature
allometry allo: different, change in different proportions, follows elastic similarity, change shape to deal with forces, ex: length of bone doubles and width cubes
Created by: emarti16