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History of Evolution

Thoughts and history of evolution

What were Aristotle's early ideas about life on Earth? Aristotle believed species were fixed creations arranged by their complexity
How long did these ideas last? 2000 years
What was Linnaues first do do? 1st to group similar organisms and assign them latin names
What language is used for scientific naming? Latin
What are the two words called in a scientific name? Genus+specie
This naming system is known as? binomial nomendature
Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism (geological process, still changing Earth)
George Cuvier species extinction (catastrophism)
Thomas Malthus struggle for existence (resources)
James Hutton Gradualism
Lamarck Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Law of Use and Disuse
Wallace Organisms evolved from common ancestors
Which was published first - the Origin of Species by Darwin or Gregor Mendel's papers on inheritance? Origin of Species
What was the name of George Cuvier's theory on evolution? catastrophism
What did Cuvier study in Paris and what did he find? Studied fossil in sedimentary rock
What did Cuvier decide was responsible for the disappearance of some species? Found that catastrophes
James ________ was a Scottish ________ who studied fossils of __________- in the Paris Museum hutton, geologist, inveterate
Hutton;s ideas were known as_________ gradualism
Briefly state Hutton's idea on geological change. Geological forces that have changed life on Earth over millions of years
Lyell proposed the theory of_________ Uniformitarianism
Describe uniformitarianism Geological processes at uniform rates building and wearing down the Earth's crust
How old did Lyell propse that Earth was? millions of years
How did reading Lyell's book help Darwin on his voyage on the Beagle? Principles of Geology explains geological process that shaped the Earth
Lamarck was one of the first scientists to understand that change occurs over__________ time
Lamarck believed that changes were adaptations to the _________ that organisms _____ in their lifetime and that he thought could be passed on to ___________ environment, changes, offspring
Explain Lamarck's idea of the Law of Use and Disuse. If a body part were used, it got stronger over time and if it is not used it deteriorates
Lamarck's theory of acquiring or losing traits by using or not using them led to his theory of evolution called the _____of_____ ______ inheritance of acquired characteristics
According to this theory new _____ could arise over time. species
According to Lamarck. if a blacksmith built up his muscles then he would have what type of sons? buff sons
According to Lamarck, if a giraffe stretched its neck reaching for leaves, what would its offspring look like? Long necked giraffe
What did Lamarck NOT know that made his theory incorrect? Tendency toward perfection, traits were inherited ( traits are passed through genes)
Are genes changed by life activities? NO
In what year and at what age did Darwin become the naturalist for the ship the HMS Beagle 1831, 22
How long was the Beagle voyage around the world? 5 years
As Darwin sailed around the coast of ______ ______, he collected plants and animals on the mainland and on the islands South America (flora and fauna)
Where are the Galapagos Islands and how were they formed? Small group of islands 600 miles west of South America, made from volcanic eruptions
What did Darwin discover about the animals on each type of island? very different climates and resembles animals from South America
How did the island species of finches and tortoises compare with those on the islands? Finches on the islands resembled mainland finches, but a lot more type of finches on the island because of the different types of food on the island
How did the necks of the tortoises compare with each other? different lengths depending on their type of food gathering
The island finches resembled a finch on the ____ Mainland
Was the available food and habitat the same on all the islands? more types of food on the islands which creates similar body parts for different uses
What was different about the finches and why? more types for different types of food
List three observations Darwin made on his travels that led him to proposes his revolutionary idea about the way life changes over time Patterns of diversity were shown...unique adaptations in organisms... species not evenly distributed
Give an example of uneven distribution of species noted by Darwin. Australia had kangaroos, but no rabbits
Darwin collected both ________ organisms and ________ of organisms living, trilobites
Give 2 examples of fossils collected by Darwin in which the species were no longer in existence. Trilobites, giant sloth
Give a definition for evolution. Evolution is the slow, gradual change in a population of organisms overtime
left unchecked, what did Darwin predict would happen to the number of individuals in a population Species will increase exponentially, generation after generation
In nature, what tends to happen to size of populations over time? Populations tend to remain stable
Competition among member of a population occur due to a limited number of _____ ______ environmental resources
Only a _______ of the offspring produced survive to the next generation fraction
The struggle for environmental resources is commonly called ____ of the fittest. survival
variation in a population is _______ inheritable
Which organisms in a population are most likely to live offspring to pass on their traits? The individuals who inherit the characteristics must fit for their environment.
This process is known as ____ ______ and was proposed by Charles ______ natural selection... Darwin
State Darwin's theory of natural selection The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to a gradual change in a population with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations.
New _____ evolve accordiong to natural selection Species
_______ was an economist in 1798 that influenced Darwin's thinking Thomas Malthus
Malthus observed wheat about the birth rate of babies Faster than people were dying
Malthus knew that population size was limited by what? Resources
According to Malthus, a high birth rate and limited resources caused what to happen? Force life and death competition
List several things that organisms struggle for in the environment. Food, living space, mates
Who'd Mslthus say would happen if the population size continued to grow unchecked? Insufficent living space and food for everyone
The _____ rate should increase to balance the ______ of a population and the limited _______ in the environment Death, increase
Most organisms produce _____ offspring that can survive causing many to _____ More, die
Darwin proposed that organisms descended from what ? Common ancestors
Over time, according to Darwin, organisms _____ their form causing evolution of new ______ Change, species
_______ ________ is the driving force for evolution Natural selection
During the struggle for survivial, which organisms survive to pass on their traits Strongest survive and reproduce
How long after he returned to England did Darwin publish his book about evolution? 25 years
Why did Darwin wait so long to publish his ideas? Extremely controversial topic, and it challenged established religion and scientific beliefs
Created by: 1376512113



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