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Ch 1 Basic Info

Clinical Kinesiology Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
Generally speaking, kinesiology is the study of ___________. movement
Kinesiology combines ___________, __________, and __________ for understanding human movement. anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology
Mechanical principles that relate directly to the human body: biomechanics
PTs and PTAs use kinesiology to determine: 1)What muscles need to be strengthened 2)what muscles are used during activities like walking and standing from a seated position (in order to help patients regain their ability to do those things)
PTAs need to know these 4 very important things: 1)Where a specific muscle originates and inserts 2)What action a muscle performs 3)What nerve innervates the muscle 4)What motion the joint allows
A location or position toward or at the midline of the body: medial
A location or position away from the midline of the body: lateral
The front of the body, or a position close to the front: anterior/ventral
The back of the body, or a position more toward the back: posterior/dorsal
________ and ________ are terms used to describe location along the extremities. proximal/distal
Pertains to a location on the extremity away from the trunk: distal
Pertains to a location on the extremity toward the trunk: proximal
Body part that is above another body part (usually referring to the trunk, since proximal and distal are used to describe body part location on the extremities: superior
Body part that is below another part of the trunk: inferior
A position or structure toward the head: cranial or cephalad
A position or structure toward the feet: caudal
Like ventral and dorsal, cranial and caudal are terms best used describe positions on a __________. quadruped (4-legged animal)
__________ and _________ are directional terms referring to the depth of a structure. superficial and deep
Standing eyes forward, feet even (parallel and close together), and arms at the side of the body with the palms facing forward: anatomical position
In the ________ _________, the palms are facing the body. fundamental position
____________ deals with the active movement of bones around a joint axis. osteokinematics
When describing joint movements, it is imperative that we include these 3 descriptions: 1)Which side of the body 2)Which joint is moving 3)What motion is occurring at that joint
Not all _________ occur at all joints. movements
Name the movements possible at the hip: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, external (lateral) and internal (medial) rotation
The bending movement of one bone on another, bringing the two segments together and causing an increase in joint angle: flexion
The straightening movement of one bone away from another - this motion usually returns the body part to anatomical position: extension
The continuation of extension beyond anatomic position: hyperextension
Flexion at the wrist is called: palmar flexion
Extension at the wrist is called: wrist extension
Flexion at the ankle is called: plantar flexion
Extension at the ankle is called dorsiflexion
Movement away from the midline of the body: abduction
Movement toward the midline of the body: adduction
Exceptions to the 'toward midline of the body' definition of abduction/adduction are ________ and ________. fingers and toes
Movement possible at the shoulder flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, medial/lateral rotation, horizontal adduction/abduction
Movement possible at wrist: palmar flexion / wrist extension, radial deviation/ulnar deviation
____________ abduction and adduction are possible at the hip as well, but the range of motion is not as great as at the shoulder. Horizontal
Movement possible at neck: flexion/extension, hyperextension, lateral bending, rotation
Movement possible at trunk: flexion/extension, hyperextension, lateral bending, rotation
A circular motion that involves flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction: circumduction
The movement of a bone or part around its longitudinal axis; rotation
Rotation in which the anterior surface of bone rolls inward toward midline: medial (internal) rotation
Rotation in which the anterior surface of bone rolls outward, away from midline: lateral (external) rotation
Rotation of the forearm anteriorly: supination
Rotation of the forearm posteriorly: pronation
Moving the sole of the foot inward at the ankle: inversion
Moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle: eversion
A mostly linear movement of a body part along a plane parallel to the ground, AWAY from the midline: protraction
A mostly linear movement of a body part along a plane parallel to the ground, TOWARD the midline: retraction
Motion type in which all parts of the object move the same distance, in the same direction, at the same time: linear (translatory) motion
Movement that occurs in a straight line: rectilinear
Movement that takes a curved path: curvilinear
Movement of an object around a fixed point, in which all parts of the object are moving in the same direction, through the same angle, at the same time, BUT all the parts do not travel the same distance: angular motion
Name the motions that occur in the sagittal plane: flexion/extension, hyperextension
Name the motions that occur in the frontal plane: abduction/adduction
Name the motion that occurs in the transverse plane: rotation, horizontal abduction/adduction
The study of forces and the motion produced as a result of those forces: mechanics
Portion of biomechanics that deals with non-moving systems: statics
Portion of biomechanics that deals with moving systems: dynamics
Dynamic systems can be divided into ________ and ________. kinetics and kinematics
In relation to dynamic systems, __________ are the forces causing the movement, while _________ is the time, space, and mass aspects of a moving system. kinetics / kinematics
Created by: taranorwood