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Chapter 8 vocab and statements

What is memory? Memory is learning that has persisted over time, information that has been stored and can be retrieved.
What do you have to do to remember any event? To remember any event, you have to go through the encode, storage, and retrieval processes.
What is the first stage of forming memory? First you have to record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory.
What is the second stage of forming memory? Second you have to process the information into your short-term memory; encode it through rehearsal.
What is the third stage of forming memory? Last, that information moves int long-term memory for later retrieval.
What is automatic processing? Automatic processing is an unconscious encoding of incidental information.
What are some examples of automatic processing? Some examples of automatic processing are the encoding of space, time, frequency and well-learned information, such as word meanings.
What is effortful processing? Effortful processing is encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
What is rehearsal? Rehearsal is conscious repetition.
What is the spacing effect? The spacing effect is the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
What is the serial position effect? The serial position effect is our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
What is imagery? Imagery is mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding.
What are mnemonics? Mnemonics are memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
What is chunking? Chunking is organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often automatic.
What is iconic memory? Iconic memory is a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographer picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
What is echoic memory? Echoic memory is a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
What is long-term potentiation? Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
What is flashbulb memory? Flashbulb memory is a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
What is amnesia? Amnesia is the loss of memory.
What is implicit memory? Implicit memory is retention independent of conscious recollection.
What is a hippocampus? A hippocampus is a neural center that is located in the limbic system.
What does the hippocampus do? The hippocampus helps process explicit memories for storage.
What is a recall? A recall is a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
What is recognition? Recognition is a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
What is relearning? Relearning is a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
What is priming? Priming is the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
What is deja vu? Deja vu is that eerie sense that "I've been here before."
What can trigger deja vu? Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
What is mood-congruent memory? Mood-congruent memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
What leads to forgetting? Encoding failure leads to forgetting.
Without effort, what happens to our memories? Without effort, many memories never form.
What is forgetting? Forgetting is not memories discarded but memories unretrieved.
How could you explain forgotten events? Forgotten events are like books you can't find in your library- some because they were never acquired (not encoded), others because they were discarded (stored memories decay).
What is proactive interference? Proactive interference is the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information; when something you learned earlier interferes with something later.
What is retroactive interference? Retroactive interference is the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information; when new information makes it harder to remember something you learned earlier.
What is repression? Repression is the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
What is the misinformation effect? The misinformation effect is incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
How did Loftus study the misinformation effect? Loftus studied the misinformation effect by showing a film of an accident and quizzed people on what they saw. He exposed people to subtle misinformation and those people formed memories of events that never occurred and misrecalled one item for another.
What is source amnesia? Source amnesia is attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
What is at the heart of many false memories. Source amnesia is at the heart of many false memories.
Created by: moore.daneisha
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