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Barry Cell & Tissue

Barry Pathophysiology -tissue handout on the cell and tissues for test 1.

Phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins & is selectively permeable. Cell membrane
Contains: polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, cholesterol, vitamin E, transferases (protein carriers) Cell membrane
What has the nickname: "doorkeeper of cell" Cell membrane
Functions: Controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell Cell membrane
Protoplasm which lies between cell membrane and nucleus Cytoplasm
has cytoskeleton, network of threadlike and tubelike structures which contribute strength and shape to cell and anchors the organelles Cytoplasm
is a colloidal suspension of water (80%), protein (15%), lipids (3%), carbohydrates (1%), and electrolytes (1%). Cytoplasm
Rod-shaped, double-membraned organelle packed with enzymes Mitochondrion
Site of Kreb cycle and electron transport chain Mitochondrion
Nickname: Power plant Mitochondrion
Function: Cellular respiration Mitochondrion
Energy nutrients are oxidized, and energy released is used to make ATP Mitochondrion
Granule consisting of rRNA and protein Ribosome
Nickname: Protein factory Ribosome
Function: Protein synthesis (mRNA serves as a template) Ribosome
Consists of membranes which form an internal transport system Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Nickname: Assembly line and transportation system Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Functions: Synthesis and transport of cellular products Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Functions: Synthesize phospholipids, steroids, and fatty acids Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth ER)
Functions: Stubbed with ribosomes which synthesize proteins for export from cell Rough endoplasmic reticulum (Rough ER)
Consists of flattened sacs enclosed by membranes Golgi Body
Nickname: Packing and distribution center Golgi Body
Functions: Storage, modification, and packaging of secretory products Golgi Body
Formation of Glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and lysosomes Golgi Body
Organelle containing digestive enzymes which breakdown carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Lysosomes
Nickname: Suicide Bag Lysosomes
Functions: Digestion of old cellular components and worn-out cells Lysosomes
Functions: Digestion of foreign particles or bacteria that may enter the cell Lysosomes
Nickname: control center of the cell Nucleus
Functions: Storehouse for genetic information which is vital to cell division and protein synhesis Nucleus
Function: Replication of DNA during cell division Nucleus
Function: Transcription of the genetic information into mRNA which is translated into cellular protein in the ribosome Nucleus
Consists of: Nuclear membrane, Nucleoplasm, Nucleolus, Chromosomes which consist of genes Nucleus
Dense area in the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized and the ribosomes are assembles Nucleolus
A segment of DNA which codes a specific protein Gene
A protein catalyst which facilitates a biochemical reaction and is not destroyed in the process Enzyme
Provides a surface on which other molecules fit into place and react with one another Enzyme
Facilitates the making and the breaking of chemical bonds Enzyme
The suffix which indicates and enzyme "ase"
On which nutrients do the following enzymes act on: 1- Lipase; 2- Protease; 3- Amylase; 4- Sucrase 1- Lipase - Lipids; 2- Protease - Protein; 3- Amylase - Starch; 4- Sucrase - Sucrose
Four classes of Tissue Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous
-TISSUE- Function: Passive Transport Simple squamous
-TISSUE- Lining of: bobby cavities (mesothelium=serous membranes), cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels (endothelium), lung alveoli Simple squamous
-TISSUE- Function: Active transport (secretion and absorption) Simple cuboidal & Simple Columnar
-TISSUE- Lines ducts and tubules of organs. Forms germinal epithelium of ovary and semineferous tubules of testes. Simple cuboidal
-TISSUE- Linning of: digestive tube from lower esophagus to rectum, many glands and ducts Simple Columnar
-TISSUE- Function: Protection against friction, drying, mechanical insult Stratified squamous
-TISSUE- Skin (dry=keratinized). Lining of: mouth,nasal cavity, esophagus, anus, vagina (moist=mucous membrane) Stratified squamous
-TISSUE- Function: Protective lining of ducts; Ability to stretch Stratified cuboidal (transitional epithelium)
-TISSUE- Which tissue is also termed transitional epithelium Stratified cuboidal (transitional epithelium)
-TISSUE- Lining of: ducts of sweat glands, testes tubules, ureters, and bladder Stratified cuboidal (transitional epithelium)
-TISSUE- Function: Generally ciliated, can move material via cilia action Pseudostratified columnar
-TISSUE- Lining of: Trachea, bronchi, some male and female urethra Pseudostratified columnar
-TISSUE- 3 Types of connective tissue Loose; Dense; Special
-TISSUE- 3 types of loose connective tissue reticular; areolar; adipose
-TISSUE- 2 types of dense connective tissue regular; irregular
-TISSUE- 7 types of special connective tissue bone; cartilage; blood; teeth; dentin; enamel; cementum
-TISSUE- 2 types of bone dense; cancellous;
-TISSUE- 3 types of cartilage hyaline; elastic; fibrous
-TISSUE- Function: holds shape of organ, filters body fluids Reticular
-TISSUE- Stroma of soft organs: liver, spleen, kidney. Also marrow cavity, termed reticuloendothelial tissue reticular
-TISSUE- Function: support, packing material areolar
-TISSUE- In all parts of body between functional units of organs areolar
-TISSUE- Function: support, protection, energy, insulation adipose
-TISSUE- Around organs and in fat pads of breasts, thighs, abdomen, buttocks adipose
-TISSUE- Function: parallel arrangement of fibers provides unidirectional strength regular dense connective
-TISSUE- Tendons, ligaments, aponeurosis regular dense connective
-TISSUE- Function: Irregular nature of fibers provides strength in all direction of stress irregular dense connective
-TISSUE- Fascia, organs, capsules, septa, sheaths irregular dense connective
-TISSUE- Function: protection, support Dense Bone
-TISSUE- Function: Hemopoiesis, reticuloendthelial activity Cancellous bone
-TISSUE- Skeleton Dense Bone
-TISSUE- Marrow cavity Cancellous bone
-TISSUE- Function: smooth articulation surface, support, protection Hyaline cartilage
-TISSUE- Epiphysis of bones, fetal skeleton, tracheal rings Hyaline cartilage
-TISSUE- Function: Support, flexibility Elastic cartilage
-TISSUE- External ear, epiglotis Elastic cartilage
-TISSUE- Function: support, strength fibrous cartilage
-TISSUE- Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis fibrous cartilage
-TISSUE- Function: transport of oxygen & Carbon dioxide, combat of foreign proteins, aid in clotting Blood
-TISSUE- Produced in hemopoietic tissue of cancellous bone and reticuloendtothelial tissues of the body Blood
-TISSUE- Of both connective tissue and epithelial tissue origin Teeth
-TISSUE- Function: forms the inner substance of teeth Dentin
-TISSUE- Within tooth structure Dentin
-TISSUE- Function: Highly specialized epithelial product; prevents wear Enamel
-TISSUE- Forms outer tooth covering Enamel
-TISSUE- "Cement" to hold tooth in bone cemetum
-TISSUE- between bone and tooth cementum
What are the functions of the following: 1- blasts; 2- clast; 3- cytes 1- blast - create; 2- clast - destroy; 3- cytes - maintain
-TISSUE- 3 types of muscle tissues Striated (skeletal); Smooth (visceral) Cardiac
-TISSUE- Function: voluntary innervation, all cells contract Striated (skeletal)
-TISSUE- attached to skeletal components Striated (skeletal)
-TISSUE- Function: Involuntary innervation, cells contract and transmit impulses Smooth (visceral)
-TISSUE- Wal of hollow tubular viscera, vessels, iris of eye Smooth (visceral)
-TISSUE- Function: Involuntary innervation, also cells capable of contraction without nervous stimulation . cells can transmit to adjacent cells Cardiac
-TISSUE- Structure of the heart Cardiac
***Muscle tissues contract as a response to... Stimuli
-TISSUE- Function: Transmit nervous pulses to other neurons and to target organs Neuron
-TISSUE- within the CNS and peripheral nerves Neuron
-TISSUE- Auxiliary cells of nervous tissue) Neuroglia
-TISSUE- 3 types of neuroglia Astrocytes; Oligodendrogliocytes Microgliocytes
-TISSUE- Function: exert some control over circulation in nervous tissue Astrocytes
-TISSUE- Attached to blood vessels in CNS Astrocytes
-TISSUE- Function: Serve as: a type of connective tissue within the CNS, source of myelination Oligodendrogliocytes
-TISSUE- Between neurons of the CNS and wrapped around axons in peripheral nervous system Oligodendrogliocytes
-TISSUE- Function: phagocytic activity within the CNS Microgliocytes
-TISSUE- Throughout the CNS and cerebral spinal fluid Microgliocytes
Created by: biglou4u