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Cells & Tissues

Circulatory System

QuestionsAnswers
Q: What is the function of the circulatory system? A: To distribute nutrients & hormones and to transport waste products to excretory organs.
Q: The circulatory system is broken into two systems. What are they? A: The blood circulatory system and the lymphatic circulatory system.
Q: Name the components of the blood circulatory system. A: The heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Q: What carries blood away from the heart? A: Arteries.
Q: What carries blood toward the heart? A: Veins.
Q: How many chambers are present in the heart? Name them. A: There are four chambers in the heart; right & left atrium and right & left ventricle.
Q: Which chambers of the heart have thicker walls? A: The ventricles have thicker walls.
Q: Where does the right atria reveives its blood from where? A: From the systemic circulation.
Q: Where does the left atria receive its blood from? A: From the pulmonary circulation.
Q: The right ventricle supplies blood to where? A: To the pulmonary circulation.
Q: The left ventricle supplies blood to where? A: To the systemic circultion.
Q: Where does the right ventricle receive its blood from? A: From the right atrium.
Q: Where does the left ventricle receive its blood from? A: From the left atrium.
Q: What function do valves in the heart serve? A: They maintain unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.
Q: What type of valve(s) separate atria from ventricles? A: Atrioventricular valves separate atria from ventricles.
Q: What type of valve(s) separate the right ventricle from the pulmonary trunk? A: The pulmonic valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary trunk.
Q: What type of valve(s) separate the left ventricle from the ascending aorta? A: The aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the ascending aorta.
Q: What does the acrynym LAB RAT stand for? A: Left AV, bicuspid: Right AV, tricuspid.
Q: The blood circulatory system has two circulations. What are they? A: The pulmonary and systemic circulations.
Q: Which circulation is responsible for sending deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs? A: The pulmonary circulation.
Q: Which circulation is responsible for sending oxygenated blood to all tissues? A: The systemic circulation.
Q: Which side of the heart would you find the pulmonary circulation? A: The right side.
Q: Which side of the heart would you find the systemic circulation? A: The left side.
Q: The valve separating the left atria from the left ventricle is known as: A: The left atrioventricular (AV) valve, bicuspid valve, or mitral valve.
Q: The valve separating the right atria from the right ventricle in known as: A: The left atrioventricular (AV) valve or tricuspid valve.
Q: What is the function of the cardiac skeleton? A: The cardiac skeleton (the central region of the heart surrounding the valves) is made up of dense irregular CT and provides support for valves & the great vessels and anchors cardiac muscle.
Q: Name the main components of the cardiac skeleton. A: Annuli fibrosae (surrounds valves), trigona fibrosae (triangular mass between annuli), septum membranaceum (part of interventricular septum).
Q: There are three layers to the heart wall. What are they? A: Endocardium (inner layer), myocardium (middle layer), epicardium (outer layer).
Q: Describe the endocardium. A: The endocardium is the inner layer of the wall of the heart. It is lined with endothelium. It has a subendothelium made up of loose CT and a subendocardial layer made up of CT, nerves, and Purkinje fibers.
Q: Describe the myocardium. A: The myocardium is the middle layer of the wall of the heart. It is the thickest layer, it makes up the fibrous skeleton, and is mostly cardiac muscle.
Q: Describe the epicardium. A: The epicardium is the outermost layer of the wall of the heart. It makes up the serous, or visceral, layer of the pericardium. It is lined with mesothelium and contains loose CT with veins, nerves, autonomic ganglia, as well as adipose tissue.
Q: What is another name for the sinoatrial node? A: The SA node.
Q: Where would you find the SA node? A: You would find the SA node in the wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
Q: What is the SA node? A: The SA node is known as the pacemaker. It is made up of modified cardiac muscle cells which can spontaneously depolarize and initiate an impulse.
Q: Walk through the conduction pathway of the heart starting at the SA node. A: The impulse starts at the SA node and travels down internodal tracts to the AV node, then to the bundle of His, to left and right bundle branches where Purkinje cells conduct the impulse to the apex of the heart where the contraction is initiated.
Q: Where would yu find the atrioventricular node? A: You would find the AV node in the inferior wall of the right atrium.
Q: What do you find in the interventricular bundle of His? A: Purkinje cells.
Q: What do you find in the right and left bundle branches? A: Purkinje cells.
Q: Where is the contraction of the heart initiated? A: At the apex of the heart.
Q: What is the general structure of the wall of a blood vessel? A: Tunica intima (inner), tunica media (middle), tunica adventitia (outer).
Q: Name the components of the tunica intima. A: The tunica intima has an internal lining of endothelium, subendothelial CT, and an internal elastic lamina (in arteries).
Q: What makes up the tunica media? A: The tunica media is made up of concentric layers of smooth muscle as well as elastic fibers, reticular fibers, and proteoglycans. The tunica media also has an external elastic lamina in larger arteries.
Q: What makes up the tunica adventitia? A: The tunica adventitia is composed of longitudinally arranged type I collagen fibers as well as elastic fibers and is continuous with CT of surrounding organs.
Q: What is vasa vasorum? A: Vasa vasorum translates to vessel of the vessels. They are the blood vessels that supply blood to larger vessels.
Q: Where would you find vasa vasorum? A: You would find vasa vasorum in the walls of larger vessels.
Q: Are vasa vasorum more common in arteries or veins? A: Veins.
Q: What is the function of vasa vasorum? A: The vasa vasorum provide nutrition for outer layer of media and adventitia of larger vessels.
Q: How are capillaries held together? A: Capillaries are held together by tight junctions.
Q: True or false; Capillaries consist of a single layer of endothelial cells resting on a basal lamina. A: True.
Q: What is a pericyte? A: A pericyte is a mesenchymal-like cell found outside the endothelial layer of capillaries and post-capillary venules. After tissue injury they can proliferate and differentiate to rebuild vessels.
Q: Capillaries come in several varieties; Name them. A: Continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal.
Q: Where would you find continuous capillaries? A: You would find continuous capillaries in muscle, lung, CT, exocrine glands, and nervous tissue.
Q: Where would you find pinocytic vesicles involved in transcellular trasnport? A: In continuous capillaries.
Q: What is meant by finestrated capillaries? A: Finestrated capillaries have finestrae or pores. These finestrae allow rapid exchange.
Q: Where would you find fenestrated capillaries? A: You would find fenestrated capillaries in the kidney, intestines, and endocrine glands.
Q: Describe the composition of fenestrated capillaries. A: Fenestrated capillaries are endothelial cells with fenestrae (pores) and continuous basal lamina.
Q: Where would you find sinusoidal capillaries? A: You would find sinusoidal capillaries in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen.
Q: What would you find hanging out in sinusoidal capillaries? A: Macrophages can be found in gaps between endothelial cells of sinusoidal capillaries.
Q: If I describe a vessel as having a discontinuous endothelial wall with fenestrae, what am I describing? A: A sinusoidal capillary.
Q: Which have thicker walls, veins or arteries? A: Arteries.
Q: True or false; large arteries are also called elastic arteries or conducting arteries. A: True.
Q: Describe elastic arteries. A: Elastic arteries have a thick tunica intima, a thick tunica media (fenestrated elastic lamina and many layers of smooth muscle), and a reletively thin tunica adventitia.
Q: Give two other names for medium arteries. A: Medium arteries are also known as distributing arteries or muscular arteries.
Q: Describe medium arteries. A: Medium arteries have a tunica media with more smooth muscle and less elastin. They lso have a prominent internal and external elastic lamina.
Q: Small arteries and arteroles have a similar composition. Describe them. A: The tunica media is 5-10 layers of smooth muscle in small arteries and 1-4 layers in arterioles. They both have a thin tunica adventitia that blends with surrounding CT.
Q: Are veins lower or higher pressure than arteries? A: Lower.
Q: True or false? Veins have endothelial covered valves to ensure one-way flow. A: True.
Q: What are the different ways veins are described? A: You have venules, small veins, medium veins, and large veins.
Q: Describe post-capillary venules. A: Post-capillary venules are similar in structure to capillaries but with a larger lumen. They also have a similar function to capillaries.
Q: Describe small veins. A: Small veins, like medium veins, have a thin tunica media, a well developed tunica adventitia, and valves.
Q: Describe medium veins. A: Medium veins, like small veins, have a thin tunica media, a well developed tunica adventitia, and valves.
Q: Describe large veins. A: Large veins have a well developed tunica intima, a thin tunica media, and a thick tunica adventitia. Veins inferior to the heart contain longitudinally arranged bundles of smooth muscle.
Created by: SquallKing