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Nutrition - E1 - P2

Nutrition - Exam 1 - Part 2

General guidelines to calories: Low = ___ Moderate = ___ High = ___ 40, 100, 400
The average American should consume about ____ of fiber. 28 g
There are no Daily Values Recommendations for ______, ______, and ______. trans fat, sugars, protein
______ are food labels that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food and must meet FDA definitions. nutrient claims
______ are food labels that state the relationship between a nutrient in a food and a disease or health related condition. health claims
______ are food labels that do not need FDA approval. structure-function claims
______ is a nutrient claim of at least 25% less fat in a serving than the original food. reduced-fat
______ is a nutrient claim of 3 grams or less fat in a serving. lowfat
______ is a nutrient claim of less than 0.5 grams of fat in a serving. fat-free
______ is a nutrient claim of 1/3 fewer calories or 1/2 the fat (in a serving) of the original product. light
______ is a nutrient claim of less than 0.5 grams sugar in a serving. sugar-free
______ is a nutrient claim of at least 25% fewer calories. reduced-calorie
______ is the process by which food is broken down into absorbable units. digestion
______ is the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph. absorption
The ______ is the inner space of the GI tract. lumen
The ______ is a tube from mouth to esophagus, shared with respiratory system. pharynx
The ______ is a flap of cartilage which guards entrance of trachea. epiglottis
The ______ sphincter is at the end of the stomach and opens into the small intestine. pyloric
The stomach is composed of what 3 layers of muscle? longitudinal, circular, diagonal
What are the 3 segments of the small intestine? Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
The ______ provides digestive fluids that come from the gallbladder. common bile duct
The ______ provides digestive enzymes from the pancreas. pancreatic duct
_______ is wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push food along. peristalsis
______ is a protein which facilitates a chemical reaction. enzyme
______ is the addition of water to break a molecule into smaller pieces. hydrolysis
What are 3 digestive enzymes? Carbohydrase Protease Lipase
What are 5 organs that produce secretions? Salivary Glands Stomach Pancreas Liver Small Intestine
______ produce water, salts, mucus and enzymes. salivary glands
Salivary glands initiate ______ digestion. carbohydrate
Gastric juice is made up of water, enzymes, and ______. hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Gastric juice aids primarily in ______ digestion. protein
In the stomach, ______ produce mucus which coats the cells, protecting them from the acidic environment. goblet cells
The acidity of the stomach causes ______ to temporarily quit working. salivary enzymes
The pancreas produces the enzyme ______, which neutralizes pH. bicarbonate
The liver produces and the gallbladder stores ______. bile
Bile is an ______ that allows enzymes to get to the fats. emulsifier
The small and large intestines have a _____ pH. neutral
The small and large intestines permit the growth of good ______ which produces ______ which aids in blood clotting. bacteria, vitamin k
Stool is made up of what 3 ingredients? water, dissolved salts, fiber
The colon causes the ______ of undigested residues. fermentation
What are the 3 ways nutrients are absorbed? Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Active Transport
______ are the fingerlike projections within the folds of the small intestine that move in a wave-like pattern to trap nutrients. villi
______ are the microscopic hairlike projections on each villi. microvilli
______ are the tubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete intestinal juices. crypts
______ are located between the villi and secrete a protective thick mucus. goblet cells
______ vitamins and small products of digestion enter the bloodstream via the capillaries and are headed to the bloodstream. water-soluble
Larger ______ and ______ vitamins cluster together with a special protein called a chylomicron and enter the lymphatic system via a lacteal. fats, fat-soluble
Larger fats and fat-soluble vitamins cluster together with a special protein called a ______ and enter the lymphatic system via a lacteal. chylomicron
The ______ directs blood from the GI tract to the liver. hepatic portal vein
The ______ takes blood from the liver to the heart. hepatic vein
The liver protects against toxic substances and is known as the ______. gatekeeper
______ is a clear, yellowish fluid without red blood cells or platelets that moves through the body by muscle contractions. lymph
______ are the lymphatic vessels of the intestine that absorb nutrients and pass them to the lymphatic system. lacteals
A healthy GI tract has many different non-disease-causing bacteria known as ______ or ______. flora, microflora
______ are bacteria found in foods that can be beneficial to health. An example is the bacteria found in yogurt. probiotics
______ are foods that are used as food by intestinal bacteria ( Fiber). prebiotics
What are the two systems that coordinate homeostatic conditions for the digestive system? Hormonal Nervous
______ are chemical messengers that travel to tissues or organs to elicit a response to maintain homeostasis. hormones
What are the 3 hormones we discuss? Gastrin Secretin Cholecystokinin = CCK
Food entering the stomach stimulates the release of ______. gastrin
Gastrin stimulates the stomach glands to secrete ______. HCL
When pH of ______ is reached the HCL turns off the gastrin producing cells. 1.5-1.7
After chyme enters the small intestine, the pancreas adds ______ to neutralize the acidic chyme. bicarbonate
The presence of chyme stimulates the cells of the small intestine to release _______ into the blood. secretin
When ______ reaches the pancreas, it stimulates it to release bicarbonate. secretin
Fat in the intestine stimulates the cells of the intestinal wall to release ______. CCK
______ travels to the gallbladder, stimulates it to contract, and it sends bile to the small intestine. CCK
Created by: K1N1V