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Nutrition - E1 - P1

Nutrition - Exam 1 - Part 1

The science of foods and the nutrients they contain and their actions within the body is known as _______. nutrition
What are the 6 processes of nutrition? ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, excretion
What is the number one reason for food choices? taste
What are the foods and beverages one consumes known as? diet
______ is the capacity to do work. energy
Energy we get from foods is _______ energy. chemical
Energy = ______ Kcals
______ provide energy and support the growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues. Some reduce the risk of disease. nutrients
What are the six classes of nutrients? Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water
What are the 2 types of nonnutrients? alcohol, additives
______ are the simplest of all nutrients. minerals
What are the inorganic nutrients? minerals, water
What are the organic nutrients? Carbohydrates Fats (Lipids) Proteins (Nitrogen) Vitamins
______ nutrients must be provided by the diet because the body cannot make them in sufficient amounts. essential
What are the macronutrients? Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins
What are the micronutrients? Vitamins, Minerals
Macronutrients are also known as ________ yielding nutrients. energy
Carbohydrates = ___ kcal/g 4
Protein = ___ kcal/g 4
Fat = ___ kcal/g 9
Alcohol = ___ kcal/g 7
The ______ is the energy in food relative to the amount of food. energy density
What nutrient has the greatest energy density? fat
Foods _____ in energy density are generally healthier. low
How many types of vitamins are there? 13
______ facilitate energy release. vitamins
Almost every bodily action requires assistance from ______. vitamins
What are the water soluble vitamins? 8 B vitamins and C
What are the fat soluble vitamins? A, D, E, K
_____ are vulnerable to destruction due to high temperatures, over cooking, and large amounts of water. vitamins
What nutrient type is indestructible? minerals
What nutrient is considered indispensable? water
The ______ is the full complement of DNA in the chromosomes of a cell. human genome
______ is the study of how nutrients affect the activities of genes. nutritional genomics
______ studies concern the incidence and distribution of disease. epidemiological
A ______ proves that 2 variables are associated, not that one causes the other. correlation
Repeated testing by various researchers is known as ______. replication
A ______ is a board of reviewers who rigorously evaluate the study and the scientific methods of the research. peer review
______ is having the quality of being founded on fact or evidence. scientific validity
______ is average amount of a nutrient sufficient to maintain body function and health in half the population. Estimated Average Requirements
______ average amount considered adequate for 98% of the population Recommended Dietary Allowances
______ is similar to RDA but has a lack of sufficient evidence. Adequate Intakes
______ means that beyond a certain point, nutrient may be toxic. Tolerable Upper Limits
EAR stands for ______. Estimated Average Requirements
RDA stands for ______. Recommended Dietary Allowances
TUL stands for ______. Tolerable Upper Levels
______ is the dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity. Estimated Energy Requirement
AMDR stands for ______. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
What is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrates? 45% - 65%
What is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fats? 20% - 35%
What is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for protein? 10% - 35%
DRI stands for? Dietary Reference Intakes
Which DRI is the most useful for institutions such as schools and the military? Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
Which DRI is the most useful for individuals? Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
______ is a condition caused by an excess or deficit of food or nutrients. malnutrition
______ data is data such as height and weight, compared to standards. anthropometric
______ deficiency occurs due to something other than inadequate intake. (ex absorption, disease) secondary
What are 4 nutrition related leading causes of death? heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes
Poor diet/inactivity contributes to __% of deaths in the US. 15
ADA stands for ______. American Dietetic Association
Providing sufficient energy and essential nutrients for healthy people is known as ______. adequacy
Consuming the right proportion of foods is known as ______. balance
Balancing the amount of foods and energy to sustain physical activities and metabolic needs is known as ______. kcalorie (energy) control
Measuring the nutrient content of a food relative to its energy content is known as ______. nutrient density
______ foods denote foods that contribute energy but lack nutrients. empty-kcalorie
Providing enough but not too much of a food or nutrient is known as ______. moderation
Eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups is known as ______. variety
______ are science-based advice for diet and physical activity to reduce risk of disease. dietary guidelines
The Dietary Guidelines are meant for the general public over __ years of age in the United States. 2
The Dietary Guidelines are reviewed every __ years. 5
The Dietary Guidelines are a joint effort between of the U.S. Department of ______ and the U.S. Department of ______. Health and Human Services, Agriculture
What are the 3 key messages of the Dietary Guidelines? - Eat fewer calories - Be more active - Make wiser food choices
The ______ provides guidance and programs related to food, agriculture, and natural resources. USDA
What are the 5 subgroups of the vegetable group? - Dark green - Red and orange - Beans and peas - Starches - Other
How many vegetables should you eat per day? 2.5 to 3 cups
How many fruits should you eat per day? 1.5-2 cups
Vegetables are great sources of what five things? potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and dietary fiber
Almost all vegetables are very low in ______ and ______. calories, fat
A diet rich in vegetables and fruits may reduce your risk of getting ______ and certain ______. heart disease, cancers
Fruit has tons of fiber, which helps fight ______, ______ and ______. diabetes, heart disease, obesity
Processed grains have been milled to remove the ______ and ______. germ, bran
______ is the addition of nutrients that were lost during processing. enriched
______ is the addition of nutrients that were not originally there or were in insufficient amounts. fortified
How much grain should you eat per day? 5-6 ounces
Grains are important sources of many nutrients, including ______, ______ and ______. dietary fiber, B vitamins, and minerals
Grains reduce your risk of ______, ______, and high blood _______. heart disease, diabetes, cholesterol
Cholesterol only comes from ______ sources!!! animal
What Are 2 Types of Fat? oils, solid fats
Oils contain essential ______. fatty acids
Solid fats contain more ______ and/or ______ than oils. saturated fats, trans fats
______, ______ and ______ are all B vitamins that most whole grains contain. thiamin, riboflavin, niacin
______, ______ and ______ are all vital minerals often found in whole grains. iron, magnesium, selenium
How much protein should you eat per day? 5-6 ounces
Sunflower seeds, almonds and hazelnuts are good sources of ______. vitamin E
The “bad” cholesterol is called ______ cholesterol. LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
Sodium should be limited to ______ of per day. 2,300 mg
How much dairy should you eat per day? 3 cups
Created by: K1N1V