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G&D chapter 8


Preschool period ages 3-6
Rate of growth is slow and steady
Preschoolers are focused on refining their gross and fine motor skills, improving their vocabulary, and increasing their knowledge of the environment
Preschool children appearance taller, the trunk and body lengthen
Weight gain in a year 5-7 pounds
Growth in a year 2 ½ to 3 inches per year
Body proportions children lose subcutaneous or adipose tissue which accounts for more slender look. Growth of extremities is faster than trunk
Muscle and bone development rapid growth of muscles; hips rotate inward causing a more adducted foot postion; fat replaces the red marrow in the long bones
Teeth concerns brushing, flossing and visits to dentist every 6 months; eat snacks low in carbs, such as carrots, cheese, and apples
Sensory development lack of depth perception, are better listeners and distinguish different sounds
By what age is depth perception and color detection fully established? 5
Vital signs for preschool children P:90-100; BP:100/60 (may develop hypertension); RR:22-25
What is decreased RR related to? growth of lungs that permits better efficiency
Four year old gross motor skills walk and run on tiptoes; hop and balance on one foot for 3-5 seconds; use alternating feet while descending stairs
Five year old gross motor skills jump rope, skip, walk on balance beam, and catch a ball with both hands
Four year old fine motor skills self-care activities, including bathing, dressing, feeding and toileting; can handle spoon without inverting it, may prefer fork over spoon
Four year old and drawing can control their drawing to permit copying letters and printing their names
Sexual development aware of genital organs and sexual identity; curious of differences in boys and girls; masturbation common and normal
Erikson’s initiative theory of psychosocial development child has learned to trust those in environment and developed a sense of independence; referred to exploration as the task of initiative
Children and exploration enjoy playing and pretending to be different people
If not allowed to pretend what can happen to children? may develop feelings of guilt that may thwart their ability to grow and develop
Children and discipline teaches children impulse control, parents also limit undesirable behavior by using positive reinforcement
What to do to help minimize sibling rivalry try to understand the preschooler’s feelings and set aside special time for him
Helpful hints on dealing with sibling rivalry don’t react to everything, allow children to resolve crises themselves, avoid blaming or sides, separate children until calm, have children suggest resolutions, family meetings for major conflicts, professional help if no improvement persists
Child’s response to divorce may interpret the failing marriage as their fault, make sure child feels he has his own space at each home
Preschool education purpose promote cognitive, motor and social development
1st day of preschool should be brief and mother should stay with the child, no activity should be forced, curriculum be driven by student needs not teacher’s desires
Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development begins in the toddler period and extends through the school-age years
Centration preschooler is unable to focus on several aspects of a stimulus
Age group of Kohlberg’s preconventional stage of moral development 4 to 10 years of age
How do children learn? modeling and imitating adult behavior
At this stage, children begin to develop what mentally? superego or conscience, gives them the capacity for self-evaluation and criticism
What do children have trouble with in communication distinguishing fantasy from reality; they often tell stories that have threads of truth woven together with untruths
How many words in sentences can 5 year old’s form? five or more words
Average daily caloric need for a child 1800 calories; three meals a day with snacks
Sleep requirements 10-12 hours each night
Average naptime 30 to 60 minutes
Type of play in children engage in cooperative or associative play; need to understand limited rules
Preschool years are a time for building confidence
Preschoolers still use what type of play? symbolic play
Major cause of death in preschoolers MVA
Health promotion in preschoolers need to receive booster shots for DPT and the oral polio vaccine, also need yearly health screenings. Should be taught hand washing and covering their mouths
Fears of the child dark, mutilation, and abandonment
Language problems in 0-3 months does not listen to sounds or does not coo or make throaty sounds
Language problems in 4-6 months does not notice noisy items such as vacuums
Language problems in 7-12 months does not babble or respond to name
Language problems in 1-2 years does not use 1-2 word sentences
Language problems in 2-3 years does not use 2-3 word sentences
Language problems in 3-4 years does not understand or answer who, what, and why questions
Created by: laotracuata