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G&D chapter 7


The growth rate of the toddler is slow and steady
Toddler age 1 to 3
Toddlers grow an average of 3 inches per year
Toddlers gain an average of 4-6 pounds per year
2 year old appearance potbellied, with exaggerated lumbar curve known as lordosis
3 year old appearance taller, slender and stronger abdomen muscles
How many teeth can a 2 ½ year old have 20
Teeth care for 2 ½ year old should brush teeth twice a day under parental supervision
bone fracture in which the bone is angulated beyond the limits of normal bending greenstick fracture
when large objects are placed at a distance of 6 feet, a toddler’s vision may be 20/40
amblyopia lazy eye, untreated can lead to blindness
Strabismus crossing of the eyes, if persistent seek medical attention
Hearing in the toddler is fully developed
What connects the middle ear to the oral pharynx? eustachian tube
How does the Eustachian tube differ in toddlers vs adults? shorter and wider, causes more frequent ear infections
Normal vital signs in the toddler T:98-99; HR:90-120; R:20-30; BP:99/64
What do gross motor skills depend on? growth and maturation of the muscles, bones, and nerves
What gross motor skills can a two year old do? climb stairs alone using two feet on each step, run with a wide stance and kick a large ball
By when is right or left hand dominance evident 15 months
What is included in fine motor skills? self-feeding, dressing and playing (can hold a crayon with fingers instead of fist)
Toilet training depends on a certain degree of maturity in the muscles including sphincter control and maturation
Toddler learns what first in elimination needs? bowel control before bladder control
If accidents happen in elimination what should you do? use matter of fact attitude without punishment to help build self esteem
Autonomy and the toddler major psychosocial task of the toddler according to Erickson's theory
What do toddlers often develop as they learn independence? conflicting emotions of ambivalence
Why do toddlers need discipline? toddlers do not have enough information to understand right and wrong behavior
How to discipline toddler? use a simple no followed by diversion, be constant and reinforce limitations
What to do with a temper tantrum insure safety of child and leave room. Also use time outs.
How to do a time out child is removed from the center of activity to a quiet place, use immediately and only for a few minutes, then talk about the events of the conflict
How to deal with separation anxiety in toddlers be honest about leaving child and say when you will come back
How can you detect sibling rivalry and what to do may see angry outbursts or regression, plan time alone with the child
Object permanence refers to the understanding that things will not disappear even if they cannot be seen
Cognitive development in the toddler continues to develop by trial and error, responds to the total situation rather than to a part.
Toddler worldview egocentric
Toddler and time toddler cannot understand it, avoid use of words tomorrow or yesterday, use a familiar event to relate to time
Toddler and morality moral values based on their parents’ moral codes, parents teach children right and wrong
What reinforces moral decisions? repeated instructions and consistency
Eating habits influenced by parents and siblings
Toddler calorie needs 1300 calories a day
Toddler preferances plain foods instead of mixtures
Toddlers and meals will develop ritualistic behavior in relation to eating
Meal planning plan same meal times and three small meals with snacks
What can refusal to eat be attention seeking behavior, it is best to ignore
Bedtime should become a ritual
Factors that can produce sleep disturbance fear of separation, illness, curiosity
Toddlers and play time major means to explore and understand the world around them
Nonsymbolic play demonstrated when the child squeezes a small ball
Symbolic play the emergence of make believe or pretend
What ages most often engage in symbolic play between ages 2- 4
What does symbolic play help with explore different possibilities, control aggression and pretend
Most toddlers prefer what type of play parallel play
Leading cause of death in toddlers accidents
Toddlers and recognition of danger incapable of recognizing danger or threat to their safety; need constant supervision
Death ranking burns rank 2nd to MV accidents
Other concerns in toddler safety choking and drowning
Regular physical exams at what ages 18, 24, and 36 months
Signs of physical abuse bruises, welts, multiple fractures at different stages of healing, lacerations or tears, cigarette or immersion burns, head injuries
Signs of sexual abuse swollen, blackened eyes, difficulty walking or sitting, bruises or bleeding from genitalia, recurrent UTI’s
Psychological/affective abuse excessive anger, aggression, poor peer relationships, negativism, loss of pleasure, low self-esteem, lack of trust, developmental delays, withdrawn behavior, regression
Created by: laotracuata