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68wm6 p2 AIDS HIV

AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

QuestionAnswer
HIV is a member of what family of viruses? Lentivirus
What is the name given to HIV at its discovery in 1984? Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type lll (HTLVlll).
Where is HIV-1 prevalent? Found worldwide but more prevalent in the US and Europe
Where is HIV-2 prevalent? prevalent in Western Africa and countries with historical and commercial ties to that region
HIV is an obligate virus. What is an obligate virus? A virus that needs a living host to survive.
How many copies of HIV are generated and cleared daily during the acute infection period? 10 billion
How many CD4 lymphocytes are produced and destroyed daily during the initial phase of the HIV infection? Nearly 2 billion
What is seroconversion? a person is said to have seroconverted when there is development of a detectable level of HIV antibodies found in the blood
When does seroconversion take place? 1 to 12 weeks after exposure
What are the initial symptoms of HIV? mononucleosis-like or flu-like symptoms, or mild to asymptomatic
What is the median time between HIV infection and the development of end-stage of HIV disease, or AIDS, in an untreated individual? 10 - 14 years
What is the CDC definition for AIDS? All HIV infected persons with CD4 T-lymphocyte counts <200 cells/mm3 or a CD4 percentage of <14 %
Does HIV cross the placental barrier? Breast milk? No, Yes
What are the four most common modes of HIV transmision? *Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse *Contaminated injecting drug equipment *Transmission from mother to child (vertical transmission) *Occupational exposure
What is the gold standard screening test for HIV that is rapid and sensitive? ELISA or enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
What is done if the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is positive? A second, very specific test will be done using the Western Blot.
What test CONFIRMS the presence of HIV? Western Blot
What test is used to measure the progression of the HIV infection? 'viral load' test that measures the number of viral particles in the blood
How long does it take after exposure to detect HIV antibodies? Normally 1-12 weeks (95%
What are the barriers to HIV prevention? *Denial; “It won’t happen to me.” *Stereotyping; “It’s only a homosexual disease.” *Fear; potential for social isolation and stigmas. *Cultural and community attitudes
What is a Retrovirus? a virus that carries its genetic material in RNA rather than DNA, and it replicates by converting RNA into DNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase
What is an Enzyme-linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA or EIA) test? a rapid enzyme immunochemical assay method to detect certain bacterial antigens and antibodies; a screening test with high sensitivity
Created by: Shanejqb