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chapters 7 and 9

nervous and endocrine systems

step by step process of nervous system stimulus - Affector - Translate/ interpret - motor output (response) - effector (response)
Effectors muscles and glands
structure of PNS spinal nerves: 31 pairs Cranial nerves: 12 pairs
Afferent neurons somatic fibers (superficial) Visceral fibers (deep)
somatic nervous system in PNS; motor division; voluntary (skeletal muscle)
Autonomic nervous system in PNS; in motor division; involuntary (heart)
dendrite fibers on a neuron that receive and then deliver messages to the cell and nucleus.
axon sends messages from (away) cell to terminals
Astrocyte (star shaped) Most abundant of glia cells; brace neurons; are chemical mops; and ingest excess ions and neurotransmitters; attatch blood cells to neurons
microglia not a neuron; phagocytes: ingest harmful substances fro protection and dispose of debris
ependymal cells line cavities; circulates cerebrospinal fluid. keeps cilia moving
oligodendrocyte only in CNS; can wrap around several nerve fibers at once
meylin sheath fatty lipid; wraps tightly around the axon of nerves. Protects neurons; speeds up messages and impulses, and AP
Schwann cells attach to only one neuron at a time
resting potential plarized; the conditions inside the neuron are different than out
depolarization conditions start to become more similar (sodium comes in) everything is inside neuron, initiated by stimulus
propagation of AP the upset of conditions inside the neuron because of the depolarization, an action potential starts
re polarization protiens open so potassium can flood out in order to restore polarization (stops AP)
sodium/potassium pump pumps potassium into cell and sodium out to restore original concentration
presynaptic neuron the message sending neuron
postsynaptic neuron the message receiving neuron
4 major regions of the brain Cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, cerebellum, stem
cerebrum gray and white matter; interpretation for smelling, logic, speech, memory, voluntary movements
diencephalon thalamus = relay- determines good or bad Hypothalamus = hunger, thirst, sex drive, body temp, hearing Epithalamus = sleep wake cycle
brain stem attaches to spinal cord; midbrain= hearing and vision. pons = control breathing. medulla oblongata = hr, bp, vomitting
cerebellum 2 hemispheres, coordination of body movements, balance, and equilibrium
protectors of the CNS scalp, skin, skull, vertebrae column, meninges
cerebrospinal fluid similar to blood plasma; watery cushion, protects and absorbs shock for the brain
blood brain barrier least permeable capillaries; fats, resp. gases, alcohol, caffeine, drugs, ect can still get through here
medulla senses bad substances before they hit the blood brain barrier and can induce vomitting if needed
spinal cord anatomy 17 in long, 1 in wide; 31 pairs. Foremen magnum = where cord meets brain Cauda equina = where cord disperses into nerves
endocrine system maintain homeostasis. its "organs" = glands
functions of the endocrine system cellular metabolism, growth and development, immunity, nutient and h2O balance
hormone released by endocrine glands; chemical messages that cause a specific resonse
receptors in cell membrane amino acid based: must have acertain protien on membrane to attach to; not lipid soluble
receptors in nucleus lipid based: lipid soluble so it can pass through right to the nucleus
hypothalamus diencephalon. secretes, releases and inhibits hormones, produces ocytocin and adh
pituitary gland stores oxytocin and ADH; 2 lobes, produces prolactin, releases growth homrmone, targets skeletal muscle and long bones
thyroid gland releaes thyroid hormone; calcitonin = released when ca+2 level is to HIGH. targets osteoblasts
parathyroid gland usually 4; parathyroid hormone = released when Ca+2 levels are to LOW. targets osteoclasts
thymus thymosin: maturation of T lyphocytes (immune cells)
adrenal glands aldosterone, corisol, epinephrine
aldosterone raises na+ level in blood to increase preassure
cortisol released when stressed; raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation
epinephrine adrenaline; increases BP and heart rate and blood sugar; intensifies memory
pancreas regulates glucose levels; glucagon = increases blood sugar - targets: glycogen Insulin = released to lower blood sugar
Created by: redhead19