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GHS Forensics 2

Physical Evidence

A type of fiber that is made from plants or animals is classified as natural
Which term refers to a print found at a crime scene? Latent print
Type of fiber that is man-made, such as nylon or rayon, is classified as: synthetic
The bottom portion of a hair nearest the scalp in which DNA may be found is called the: root
The _______ Principle states that with contact between two items, there will be an exchange. Locard
What database can be used to find matches for DNA samples from a crime scene? CODIS
The study of firearms and ammunition is called: ballistics
What does the abbreviation GSR refer to? Gunshot Residue
This type of analysis is the type that can be utilized or compared through unaided observation. Visual
This type of evidence must be subjected to procedures such as DNA typing or drug screening. Chemical
This type of evidence usually requires it to be matched to a control. Comparison
Usually hair and fibers require this type of analysis because they require more than the human eye to be properly evaluated . Microscopic
What has made the matching of printed documents nearly impossible? Inkjet and laser printers
Document analysis primarily concentrates on: handwritten documents
What do you commonly find along with broken glass? Blood or fingerprints
Soil and other types of vegetative matter can be hard to match exactly-therefore when often used in court it is considered this type of evidence? Circumstantial
This term means any chance or accidental impression left by friction ridge skin on a surface. Latent Prints
What needs to be present on hair to provide DNA Root or follicle tissue
What separates fibers from hair follicles? Presence of DNA
A good analogy for a firearm would be: A fired bullet or spent cartridge may be matched to a weapon as well as this: Paint to a car
This is very easy to detect from a gun or explosive : Powder residue
This can help determine the origin and users of explosive and petroleum products. Chemical Composition
The analysis of drugs for forensic science is: an expensive task due to equipment and maintenance
Paint from a car can be identified with 100% certainty
All body fluids, animal or human will be subjected to this type of analysis Biochemical
This is the MOST common analysis of body fluids? DNA Testing
The color, number of layers, chemical composition, or features of paint chips, are known as this and can be analyzed and used for matching evidence to a suspect. individual characteristics
What are the characteristics of Glass that will be analyzed to determine its properties? color, tint, thickness , density, chemical composition , refractive index (RI)
Usually an examination can determine the chemical composition of this: Explosives
When looking at a gun barrel this causes distinctive marks on fired bullets. Rifling
This is a database used for ballistic evidence. The National Integrated Ballistics Identification System
When an object is broken, torn, or cut, two unique edges are formed. These can be compared to see if they fit and is known as this kind of evidence: Fracture lines
All of the ways that impression evidence can be obtained: photographed, lifted with tape, cast with plaster
These can help tell the size, as well as sometimes weight and walking patterns of a suspect or victim. Shoe Prints
The use of these can help detect the post mortem interval: Bugs
These might be left on a victim, assailant, or other object and can be matched to dental records for the identification of a victim or suspect. Bite Marks
Tiny nicks and chips form on the edges of these devices as they are used, which can be used to identify matches between evidence and suspects. Tool Marks
Blood, semen, saliva, sweat, and urine can be analyzed to provide information about the crime as well as its victim or the suspect. These are most easily detected by the use of : Chemicals and UV light
This can be extracted from almost any tissue, hair, fingernails, bones, teeth, & body fluids. DNA
This is an FBI database that is used to find matches to unknown DNA samples from a crime scene. CODIS
All of the following are the 3 types of patterns found on fingerprints? arches, loops and whorls
This is the Fingerprint Identification System database used by investigators to find fingerprints found at a crime scene. AFIS
This landmark case was groundbreaking because it set the standard to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence. It provides that expert opinion based on a scientific technique is admissible only where the technique is generally accepted. Frye vs. United States
In this Landmark case the U.S. Supreme Court changed the standard for admissibility of expert testimony determining a trial judge has a duty to scrutinize evidence more rigorously & determine whether it meets the requirements of Federal Rule of Evidence. Daubert v. Merrell Dow
In the landmark case the Supreme Court ruled citizens are entitled to be told their rights before questioned. Miranda v. Arizona
Type of characteristic that can be matched to a single source with a high degree of probability: individual characteristics
Cannot be directly connected to one person or source but can reduce the number of suspects: common characteristics
Samples from a known source that are used for bias or comparison: reference samples
This provides documentation of every person who has come into contact with evidence and acts as a paper trail. Chain of Custody
True or False? It is possible to show that a hair came from a specific person or animal. True
True or False? Every single piece of evidence at a crime scene is considered significant until toughly examined? True
True or False? Hairs can be examined to identify their origin, such as human or animal. True
True or False? Hairs with roots intact can be tested for DNA. True
True or False? Fibers are always synthetic. False
True or False? Wounds can often be matched to weapons or tool marks on the weapon. True
True or False? Investigators often find it impossible to determine a weapon's size, shape, and length from a wound. False
True or False? Wounds can provides clues about a victim’s injuries, the suspect (left-handed, right-handed, height, etc.), and positions of the victim and suspect. True
True or False? Soil evidence can always reveal where a person has traveled because the general chemical composition is extremely specific just like fingerprints. False
True or False? Skeletal remains aren’t typically analyzed to determine a victim's sex or race. False
True or False? Sex of a skeleton can usually be determined by examining the pelvis, humerus, and femur. True
Created by: rseneta