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2/8 quiz LAB

tissues groups of of cells with similar appearance that perform the same functions
epithelial tissues surface tissues cover and line body surfaces. protection & regulate materials. tight & avascular
connective tissues underlying tissues covered by epithelium. Support, protection, assist system interactions
muscle movement of body structures
nervous tissue controls other body tissues using electrical impulses
organs different tissues combined. distinct shape & function
organ systems organs grouped to perform more complex tasks
epithelium is vascular or avascular? avascular tissue
basement membrane between epithelium and connective tissues
3 types of epithelial layers 1. simple 2. stratified 3. pseudostratified
simple single layer, touch basement membrane, neatly arranged nuclei
stratified multiple layers, only deepest touches basement membrane, range in thickness
pseudostratified single layer, false appearance of multiple layers (different levels), all touch basement membrane but not all reach surface
squamous flat, scale-like. top is irregularly shaped polygons & side is flat "fried egg"
cuboidal top is irregularly shaped polygons & side is square. nucleus toward center.
columnar top is irregularly shaped polygons & side is rectangular. Nucleus towards bottom.
transitional irregularly round. uncommon.
3 types simple epithelium 1. squamous 2. cuboidal 3. columnar
3 types simple culumnar epithelium 1. ciliated 2. microvilli 3. neither
2 types of stratified epithelium 1. squamous 2. transitional
1 type of pseudostratified epithelium columnar pseudostratified epithelium
4 shapes of epithelial cells 1. squamous 2. cuboidal 3. columnar 4. transitional
simple squamous epithelium single layer of flat, scale-like cells. very thin barrier allows filtration & diffusion.
simple squamous epithelium locations found in alveoli(lung), glomerulus(kidney), inside blood vessels, capillaries, outsides of organs & body cavities
simple cuboidal epithelium single layer cube/square. Stronger barrier than simple squamous. Impermeable or selective.
simple cuboidal epithelium locations Gland ducts, thyroid gland, kidney tubes
Simple columnar epithelium Single layer rectangular. Lines direct environmental exposure areas. Thickest & most difficult to cross
Cilia Hair like
Microvilli Tiny fan folds. Increase surface area
Goblet cells Mucus producing glands. Lube & protect. Can be associated with cilia or microvilli
3 special features of Simple columnar epithelium Microvilli, cilia, goblet cells
Simple columnar epithelium locations Digestive lining (with microvilli & goblet), smaller airways (with cilia), ducts of large glands
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Variety of cells, most have cilia & goblet. Thickness doesn't change.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium locations Lines large airways (trachea, bronchi), reproductive tubing
Stratified squamous epithelium Multiple layers thickness varies. Strong, durable, direct exposure to environment.
Stratified squamous epithelium locations Epidermis (skin surface), mucus membranes (moist body entrances)
transitional epithelium several layers large round cells. can stretch*
transitional epithelium locations bladder, bladder tubing
gland tissue type made of epithelial tissue
endocrine gland uses blood (not ducts) to deliver secretions, produces hormones
exocrine glands ducts lead to epithelial surface to deliver secretion
3 types exocrine glands 1. merocrine 2. apocrine 3. holocrine
merocrine gland sends only secretions through ducts, watery
apocrine glands portion of cell + secretion through ducts, slightly thicker
holocrine glands lose entire cell with secretion, very thick. chance of odor
3 types of connective tissue 1. soft 2. support 3. fluid
soft connective tissues very pliable. also known as proper connective tissues
support connective tissues rigid (stiff)
fluid connective tissues liquid tissues, blood
connective tissues vascular or avascular highly vascular
matrix space between connective tissue cells. fibers & a ground substance.
fibroblasts fibers produced by connective tissue cells
3 types of connective tissue fibers 1. collagen 2. elastic 3. reticular
collagen fibers thick protein bands. strong, dont stretch. found in most connective tissues
elastic fibers thinner protein strands that stretch
reticular fibers medium thickness, branched protein strands rarely found in connective tissues
ground substance surrounds cells & fibers of connective tissues
3 types of ground substances 1. hyaluronic acid 2. chondroitin sulfate 3. calcium salts
hyaluronic acid ground substance found in soft connective tissues. watery makes tissues flexible.
chondroitin sulfate gelatinous forms ground substance of cartilage.
calcium salts ground substance is very rigid provides support & protection. forms bone crystalline matrix
2 types support CT 1. cartilage 2. bone
2 types fluid CT 1. blood 2. lymph
4 types soft CT 1. areolar 2. adipose 3. dense collagenous 4. reticular
areolar CT common found beneath epithelium. many fiber & cell types
adipose CT fat found beneath epithelium & protective cushions. chicken wire
dense collagenous CT many collagen fibers in matrix. strong doesnt stretch
reticular CT framework for organs including liver, spleen, kidneys, lymph nodes
cartilage *AVascular* support CT.
lacunae shell-like housing units
3 types cartilage 1. hyaline 2. fibrocartilage 3. elastic
hyaline cartilage end of nose, part of ribs, joint surfaces, fetal skeleton
fibrocartilage more collagenous fibers, forms intervertebral discs & joint pads
elastic cartilage elastic fibers & collagen, most flexible. Forms outer ear
osseous CT (bone) ground substance is calcium salts creating rigid calcified matrix. found in lacunae. "bulls-eye"
muscle tissue with ability to contract in response to stimulus, stretchy, large closely-packed sheets, large, easy DNA access
skeletal muscle associated with skeleton used to move body around. Striated (striped)
cardiac muscle walls of heart. striated (striped), intercalated discs
intercalated discs special cell junctions for rapid transmission of info between cells in heart.
smooth muscle muscular walls of most body organs. No striations, has smooth appearance. small spindle shaped cells
visceral smooth muscle muscular walls of many abdominal & pelvic organs. large interconnected sheets function as group
multiunit smooth muscle muscular walls of blood vessels, internal eye structures, arrector pili. Large sheets function independently
nervous tissue contains neurons
neurons large star-shaped cells send/receive electrical impulses
neuroglia support cells protect neurons
forms outer layer of skin stratified squamous epithelium
forms rigid part of skeleton osseous (bone)
contains cells that send/rec electrical messages nervous tissue
lines major airways pseaudostratified columnar epith
also known as fat adipose
forms muscle attached to bones skeletal muscle
may be called endothelium or mesothelium simple squamous epith
forms tendons & ligaments reg dense collagenous CT
fills space under epith areolar CT
avascular tissue cartilage
forms muscular walls of heart cardiac muscle
forms thyroid ducts and many other glands simple cuboidal epith
framework for organs like liver & spleen reticular CT
forms lining of urinary bladder transitional epith
example fluid CT blood
forms flexible parts of skeleton cartilage
forms muscular walls of many organs smooth muscle
has calcified matrix osseous (bone)
uses chondroitin sulfate in ground substance cartilage
forms joint & organ capsules irr. dense collagenous CT
forms lining of digestive system simple columnar epith
forms intervertebral discs fibrocartilage
epidermis most superficial layer of skin, stratified squamous epith. thickness varies.
epidermal ridges thicker & thinner areas increase gripping friction on hands and feet (fingerprints)
stratum basale close to dermis & attaches to basement membrane. rapid mitosis. cuboidal
stratum spinosum has desmosomes, spiney appearance, gives strength to epithelium
specialized cell junctions desmosomes
stratum germinativum stratum spinosum & stratum basale together
stratum granulosome manufacture keratin, oval shaped cells begin to die (further from nutrient source)
keratin protein makes cells water-repellent and resistant
stratum lucidum palms, soles, mucous membranes
stratum corneum most superficial. flat, highly karatinized, dead cells.
melanocytes produce melanin, located at the bottom of epidermis on the dermis border.
papillary region just deep to the stratum basale. composed of areolar CT fills areas where epidermis changes thickness
dermal papillae fingerlike projections of papillary region fit into epidermal ridges. helps privide nutrients,holds skin layers together, and helps form fingerprints. have meissners corpuscles and pain receptors
meissners corpuscles light touch nerve receptors
reticular region irr dense collagenous tissue, determines thickness, makes skin strong and tear resistant. has hair follicles and glands
pacinian corpuscles deep pressure nerve receptors near subcutaneous layer and also tactile receptors
tactile receptors nerve endings assiciated with the skin
subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) composed of adipose CT. Insulation & protective cushion
hair follicle epidermal tissue that dips into dermal layers
hair bulb deepest end of hair follicle produces hair, highly keratinized cells
root portion of hair below skin surface
shaft portion of hair above surface
arrector pili muscle attaches to side of hair follicle, contracts when cold/scared
nails special epidermal tissue at base of nail composed of highly keratinized, dead epidermal cells
sudoriferous glands produce sweat
sebaceous glands oily secretion
cerimunous glands earwax
mammory glands produce milk
epidermis layers from lowest to most superficial Stratus -- basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
contains dead keratinized cells corneum
forms all cells of the epidermis basale
cells begin to die due to lack of nutrients granulosum
layer not found in hairy skin lucidum
sheds cells into environment corneum
cells attach to one another using desmosomes spinosome
beginning to form keratin granulosome
composed of dense collagenous CT reticular region of dermis
forms surface of skin and mucous membranes epidermis
contains meissners corpuscles papillary
most glands are found in this layer reticular region
composed mostly of adipose CT subcutaneous layer
forms dermal papilla papillary region
composed of stratified squamous epith epidermis
contains pacinian corpuscles reticular region
produces oily secretion sebaceous
produces milk mammary
produces sweat sudoriferous
produces ear wax ceruminous
Created by: la66