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histamine chmcl bdy makes causes inflmmtn respnse; released during injry smth ms/vascular sys increase bld flow
antihistamine relieve effcts histamine on bdy organs/strctures
action antihstamine blck action of histamine by cmptng c H1 rcptr site so limit vasodilation/reduce edema; limit acetylcholine=dry effect n seditive
uses of antihistamine sar, perennial allergic rhinitis, perennial nonallergic rhinitis; snzing,stfnss, postnasal drip; to sleep
interactions antihistmines sedative effcts incrse c cns deprrnts; strngthn anticcholinergic of MAO/antdprssnts; ototoxic effects masked; decrease crtcstrds/hrmes
examples antihistamines brompheniramine, diphenhydramine, cetirizine, fexofenadine, lortadine
other uses of anithistamines hives, angioneurotic edema, serum sickness, reactions to plasma or blood
anthistamine adverse rxn htn, hypotension,tachycardia, blurred vision, drowsiness, excitation, sedation, tinnitus, anorexia, constipation, nausea,vomitting, painful urination, urticaria, nasal congestion
drug interactions of antihistamine sedative effect increases with cns depressents(hypnotics,seditives, tranqulizers, depressant analgesics,alcohol); strengthen effects of MAO adntricyclic depressants; ototoxic efffects masked; decrease effect corticosteriods and hormones
antihistamine teaching give with milk,meals to limit gi effects; orally so well absorbed; check for rebound effect; tolerance, stop using for 48 hr if test for allergies,
alkylamines are brompheniramine-Dimetapp; chlorpheniramine; dexchlorpheniramine-Polaramine
ethanolamines diphehydramine-Benadryl,Genahist,Diphenhist, Banophen
antihistamines and elderly check for dyskinesia,tremor,confusion,dizziness, extrapyramidal reactions
piperidines-for sar/pnar loratadine-Claritin, fexofenadine-Allegra, cetirizine-Zyrtec
antitussives relieve overactive/nonproductive coughing, narcotic acts centrally on cough center in brain and nonnarcotic acts peripherally by anesthetizing stretch receptors in resp tract n act localy to soothe irritatd areas in throught
antitussives adverse rxn constipation,drowsiness, dry mouth, nausea(make pt lay down), postural hypotension
antitussive interactions additive effect with CNS depressants and increase effects of aspirin
narcotic antitussives exmples codeine, hydrocodone-Hycodan
nonnarcotic antitussives benzonatate-tessalon perles, dextromethorphan-Vicks Formula 44,Robitussin,Benylim
asthma prevention med action cromolyn slows destruction sensitized mast cells-prevents release of phospholipase
cromolyn/ nedocromil sodium for managing bronchial asthma for prophylaxis, bronchospasm,chronic urticaria,ddermatitis, allergic rhinitis
adverse rxn to cromolyn/nedorcromil dizziness, HA,vertigo,rash,nausea,bad mouth taste,dysuria,bronchospasm,cough,nasal congestion,, anaphylaxis, swollen parotid glands
drug interactions to cromolyn/nedorcromil none reported
cromolyn/nedorcromil implement inhaled because ineffective orally, 2 inhalations X 4 daily; improvement within 4 weeks
cromolyn/nedorcromil teach cromolyn-clear airway of mucous before taking med,must be daily, ween off, rinse and gargle after dose, use brnchdltr first then med; nedorcromil-press 3 times b4 1st use & repeat if unused for 7 days; regular intervals daily
bronchodilators relax smooth muscles to open the bronchi for air passage; includes sympathomimetics and xanthines
sympathomimetics are betaadrenergic agents that dilate bronchi through beta adrenergic receptors aka adrenergic stimulants
xanthines directly relax smooth ms cells of bronchi, dilating/opening bronchi up
sympathomimetics action stimulate beta2 rcptrs & alphaadrenergic rcptrs which causes vasoconstriction response 2 all bdy- bld vessels of bronchial mucosa so theres less mucus/submucosal edema & b receptors to increase hr and hearts contractions
sympathomimetics bronchodilators use used for relief of bronchospasm during acute & chronic asthma/bronchitis and COPD/emphysema
sympathomimetics bronchodilator adverse rxns dysrhythmias,hypotension,tachycardia,anorexia,anxiety, HA,insomnia,nausea,pallor,polyuria,restlessness,vomiting,weakness,
sympathomimetics effects are increased with thyroid drugs,antidepressants(MAO/tricyclics),antihistamines,amphetamines
causes dysrthythmias if sympathomimetics are taken with digitalis or diuretics, or general anesthetics
sympathomimetics effects blocked if pt takes nonselective beta blockers & beta adrenergic blockers(propranolol)
caution sympathomimetics with what pts pt with cardio,endocrine, or convulsive disorders
sympathomimetics implementation parenterally,oral, oral inhalation(nebulizers/meter dosed inhalers MDI; protect from light,check bp/ pulse ;refractoriness
sympathomimetics carefully monitor for preventing tachycardia,decreased/increased bpm nausea, ha, cns symptoms
xanthine derivatives action bronchodilator relaxes smooth muscle cells in bronchi & blood vessels in lungs; kidneys produce diuresis; increase rate of breathing,metabolism release of epinephrine from adrenal medulla
xanthin uses treat bronchospasm in chronic bronchial asthma,bronchitis, emphysema, neonatal apnea; acute pulumonary edema
xanthin adverse reactions dsyrhythmias,flushing,hyptension,tachycardia,ha,insomnia,restlessness,diarrhea,epigastric pain, nausea,vomiting, rash
xanthin od rxns resp failure, shock, extreme thirst,delirum,hyperthermia--death
xanthin interactions
Created by: morenachubs