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Anatomy-Chapter 14

Lymph The tissue fluid that enters lymph capillaries
Lymph capillaries are very _______ and collect _____ ______ and _____ permeable, tissue fluid, proteins
Lacteals specialize lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine
Lymph is kept within lymph vessels by the same mechanisms that promote venous return
The lymph vessels from the lower body unite in front of the lumbar vertebrae to form a vessel called the cisterna chyli
The cisterna chyli continues upward in front of the backbone as the thoracic duct
Lymphatic tissue consists mainly of lymphocytes in a mesh-like framework of connective tissue
Lymph nodes are found in groups along the pathways of lymph vessels
As lymph passes through a lymph node, bacteria and other foreign materials are phagocytized by fixed (stationary) macrophages
Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes exposed to pathogens in the lymph and produce antibodies
The cervical, axillary, and inguinal are located at the junctions of the head and extremities with the trunk of the body
Lymph nodules are small masses of lymphatic tissue found just beneath epithelium of all mucous membranes
Peyer's patches the lymph nodules of the small intestine
The spleen is located in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm, behind the stomach
The thymus is located inferior to the thyroid glands
The stem cells of the thymus produce T lymphocytes
T lymphocytes are also called T cells
Self-recognition is the ability to distinguish the cells that belong in the body from those that do not
Self-tolerance is the ability not to react to proteins and other organic molecules or cells produce
Immunity the ability to destroy pathogens or other foreign material and to prevent further cases of certain infectious diseases
Antigens chemical markers that identify cells
The stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin is ___-_____ and when unbroken is an excellent ______ to pathogens of all kinds non-living, barrier
Natural killer cells make direct contact with foreign cells and kill them
How do NK cells kill foreign cells? by rupturing cell membranes (with chemicals called perforins) or by inflicting some other kind of chemical damage
Interferons Proteins produced by cells infected with viruses and by T cells
Complement a group of more than 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood until activated
Inflammation a general response to damage of any kind: microbial, chemical or physical
In the embryo, T cells are produced in the bone marrow and thymus
T cells must pass through the thymus
Thymic hormones bring about the maturation of T cells
In the embryo, B cells are produced in the bone marrow
B cells migrate directly to the spleen and lymph nodes and nodules
When activated during an immune response, B cells will divide many times and become plasma cells that produce antibodies to a specific foreign antigen
The helper T cell becomes sensitized to and specific for the foreign antigen, the one that does not belong in the body
Cell-mediated immunity The recognition of an antigen as foreign initiates one or both of the mechanisms of adaptive immunity
Antibody-mediated immunity involves T cells, B cells, and macrophages
The ______ __ ______ will remember the specific foreign antigen and become active if it enters the body again memory T cells
Memory B cells remember the specific antigen and initiate a rapid response upon a second exposure
plasma cells that produce antibodies specific for this one foreign antigen
Antibodies do not themselves destroy foreign antigens, but rather become attached to such antigens to "label" them for destruction
Opsonization Means that the antigen is now "labeled" for phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils
Chemotaxis means "chemical movement"
Agglutination clumping
Genetic immunity does not involved antibodies or the immune system; it is the result of our genetic makeup
Acquired immunity involve antibodies
Passive immunity antibodies are from another source
active immunity the individual produces his or her own antibodies
Created by: akikoandpoog