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68wm6 p2 Anemia


What is hypovolemic anemia? Decreased RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit due to hemorrhaging
Until how long can it take for lab results for hypovolemic anemia to be accurate? Hours after injury
What is the Tx for Hypovolemic anemia? Same as for Hypovolemic Shock
What is Pernicious Anemia? Autoimmune disorder resulting from the destruction of parietal cells and eventual gastric mucosa atrophy
What vitamin is a PT with Pernicious Anemia potentially lacking in, and why? Parietal cell damage ---> Decreased intrinsic factor production ---> Intrinsic factor not available to combine with Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is needed for what? growth and maturation of all body cells
Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to what in RBCs and nerve cells? *Leaves erythrocyte membranes fragile and easy to rupture *Leads to large, immature RBCs *Progressive demyelination and degeneration of nerves and white matter
List 5 S/Sx of pernicious anemia: *Jaundice *Dyspnea *Hypoxia *Edema of legs *Constipation or diarrhea *Dysphagia *Parasthesia *Smooth and erythematous tongue *Partial or total paralysis due to destruction of the nerve fibers of the spinal cord
What test shows malabsorption of B12? Schillings test
What test shows decreased serum levels of B12? Megablastic anemia profile
How is a schillings test performed? PT is given radioactive B12 PO and a parenteral flushing of nonradioactive B12. Urine is monitored for percentage of radioactive B12 for 24 hrs. Low % in urine indicates deficient intrinsic factor.
What is the B12 therapy for pernicious anemia? *IM injections given daily for 2 weeks *Then Weekly for one month *Then Monthly for the rest of the patient’s life
How often is the CBC monitored for a PT with pernicious anemia? Every 3 - 6 months
What is the name for vitamin B12? Cyanocobalamin
What is Aplastic Anemia (Aplasia)? patients have lower counts of all blood cells due to a failure of the normal process of generation & growth
What is Pancytopenia? Low RBCs, Low WBCs, and Low Platelets
In a PT with Aplastic Anemia (Aplasia), what is hematopoietic tissue replaced by? Fatty tissue
Oral leukoplakia manifests in which anemia? Aplastic Anemia (Aplasia)
Skin with lemon-yellow–tinged pallor and a "raw-beef" tongue manifests in which anemia? Pernicious anemia
What will be found in a bone biopsy of an Aplastic Anemia (Aplasia) PT? *Hypoplastic or aplastic fatty deposits *Decreased cellular elements *Decreased hematopoietic activity
Why are blood transfusions avoided when possible in PTs with Aplastic Anemia (Aplasia)? to prevent iron overloading and the development of antibodies to tissue antigens, and to minimize the risk of rejection for a bone marrow transplant candidate
What is medical therapy is used for PTs with Aplastic Anemia (Aplasia) who cannot recieve a bone marrow transplant? Immunosuppressive therapy: antithymocyte globulin
What is used to control the cause of aplastic anemia? GM-CSF Granulocytic-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in adults? chronic intestinal or uterine bleeding
What are the S/Sx of iron deficiency anemia? *Glossitis *Pagophagia (desire to eat ice, clays, or starches... pica?) *Paresthesias *Pallor *Inflamed mucous membranes
What is the medical management of iron deficiency anemia? *Pallor *Inflamed mucous membranes *Iron rich diet
Iron/Ferrous Sulfate should not be taken with what? Antacids
What foods are high in iron? organ meats, white bean, leafy vegetables, raisins, molasses, dry fruits, and egg yolk
What is the most common clinical manifestation of iron deficiency anemia? Pallor
What percentage of black americans has sickle cell trait? 81%
What is Polycythemia Vera (primary polycythemia)? Excessive bone marrow production (hyperplasia of bone marrow) causing increased circulating erythrocytes, granulocytes and platelets (inc RBCs/Granulocytes/Platelets/basophils)
What is secondary polycythemia caused by? Caused by hypoxia rather than a defect in the evolution of the RBC. Hypoxia stimulates erythropoietein in the kidneys which stimulates erythrocyte production.
The venous distention and platelet dysfunction associated with secondary polycythemia causes what? *Esophageal varices *Epistaxis *GI bleeding *Petechiae *Hepatomegaly and Splenomegaly from organ engorgement
In a PT with Polycythemia, repeated phlebotomy is done to maintain a hematocrit of what Percentage? 45% - 48%
What is the purpose of drug therapy in polycythemia? Decrease bone marrow response
What is the major complication of polycythemia vera? Thrombosis due to the abnormal increased number of circulating RBCs and platelets
What is done to prevent thrombosis in a PT with polycythemia? Encourage ambulation/ROM exercises
Created by: Shanejqb