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Immune system

body's defense

QuestionAnswer
1 st line of defense, surveilance for threat to life, innate & acquired defense system. protective skin, mucosal membranes, coughing, vomiting, diarrhea,
2nd line of defense: inflammatory response, when physical barriers are breached.
3rd line of defense, adaptive, acquireed portion of immune system, antigen and antibody antigen-causes harm as a non self substance, antibody- immunoglobulin produced after contact with an antigen
3 functions of the immune system. protect internal syste from invadin organisms, maintain hmeostatis by removing damaged cells rom circulation, survaillance system for the detection and destuction of grwoth of abnormal cells.
components of immune system, humoral-mediated vs. cellular-mediated immunity begin as a lymphocyte stem cells in the bone marrow, migrate to a specific organs to mature, become t lymphocytes in thymus, b lymphocytes in bone marrow
T cells cell mediated immunity mature in thymus, differentiate into memory, cytotoxic, lymphokine-producer, helper T-cells(CD4) Suppressor (or Regulatory) T-cells (CD8), may become sensitized/recognizing antigen, attack directly, and produce memory cells.
B cells - humoral - mediated Immunity Bursa fabricus in chickens,bursa equivalent tissues (bone marrow) differentiate into memory b cells, plasmas cells (IgG-long term, IgM-Immediate, IgA-secretory, IfE-mediated
how antibodies work: toxin neutrilazation/precipitation, viral neutralization agglutination, bacterial opsonization
T cells cell mediated immunity mature in thymus, differentiate into memory, cytotoxic, lymphokine-producer, helper T-cells(CD4) Suppressor (or Regulatory) T-cells (CD8), may become sensitized/recognizing antigen, attack directly, and produce memory cells.
B cells - humoral - mediated Immunity Bursa fabricus in chickens,bursa equivalent tissues (bone marry) differentiate into memory b cells, plasmas cells (IgG-long term, IgM-Immediate, IgA-secretory,
how antibodies work: toxin neutrilazation/precipitation, viral neutralization agglutination, bacterial opsonization
skin inflammation infection changes in natural defens, skin thins becomes frail, dry
respiratory decreased movement of respiratory system, decerased cilia
gastrointestinal infection decreased saliva and gastric secretions
eye inflammation and infection decreased tear production
Urinary tract infections structural changes and/or decreased mobility lead too stasis or retention of urine.
chronic illnesses COPD, diabetes, chronic renal failure all increase susceptibility of infection
Declining immune system function thymus gland size and funtion decreases after puberty, reliability of memory cells, delayed hypersensitivity response is decreased,
response to infection
immunocompetent, immunodeficient, immunosuppressive, autoimmunity-anaphylaxis,manifestation, nursing, lupus, .. immunocompetent-healthy immune system able to free the body from burden of disease caused bynon-self cells, able to mount an effective immune response.
immunodeficient lacking in one or more componentens neede to free the ornanism from burdne of infection results in an altered or failed immune response. primarily a desiase of decreased T cells, a cellular immunity disorder
immunosuppressive a substance or condition that prevent one or more of the components of the immune system to be produced, causing immunodefinciency
hypersensitivity/reactions/anaphylaxis immediate excessive hypersensitive allergic reaction, allergen -antigen that is cappable of inducing an allergic reation.
Anaphylaxis mild-severe(puritis/ hives, sneezing, runny nose) mod(NVD, resp difficulty/wheezing, and hives eetc) Anaphylaxix is most severe form of reaction, very rapid onset (seconds to minutes) tachycardia severe hypotension, laryngeal edema, bronchospasm,
DX tests for allergens pt hx, CBC, skin testing, Total IgE, RAST (radioallergenabsorbent test)
Imediate: antihistamines (Benadryl 50-100mg IM or IV steroids, epinephrine 0.3 ml of 1:1000 SQ every 15 minx 3 doses, IV thereapy; oxygen.
long term: avoidance of allergens/environmental control, immunotherapy/desensitization, antihistamines (seasonal)
nursing dx; risk for injury activity intolerance, risk of infection ; potential ducation deficit
medication pt teaching r/t s/e: drowsiness, dry mucous membran3s, occasional CNS excitation; use of EpiPen
Dietary pt teaching r/t food
AutoImmune disorders: Systemic Lupus Erythemat condition where your body does not recognize your cells as being yours anymore.
Manifested 9x more women than men, prevalent in women of child bearing age, 3x as many african americans are affected than caucasions, survival rates have increased to over 15 years after dx with treatment, genetic predisposition in most instances, coupled fac
clinical manifestations systemic lupus erythematosus oral ulcers, arthralgias, arthritis, vasculitis (polyarthralgia) malar rash, nephritis pericarditis, synovitis organic brain syndromes, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathies, immunosuppression, and dermatitis, anemia tends to be most common
SLE DX tests Anti-double stranded DNA(ds-DNA),LE cell prep, ANA, DNA antibody, complement, CDC, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Coagulation profile, Rheumatoid factor (RF),Rapid plasma reagin (RPR), skin and renal biopsy, C-reactive protein (CRP), Coombs'UA
medical treatment symptomatic, induce remisson, alleviate exacerbations early, prevent complications, NSAIDS, antimalarial, coricosteroids
nursing care skin care, balance of rest and activity, recognize signs of exacerbaton (fever, rash, cough, increase joint and musckle pain), recog s/s of infection,stress reduce/mgm, balanced nutrition, reduction of sodium uptake, phychosocial- bodyimage, loss, grief
plasmapheresis, and giving unto others, transfution of lod to oaurselves. pheresis take way or to separate, removal of whole blood through a needle inserted in one arm and cirluation of the blood throug h a cell separator,
pheresis separates the blood cells from the plasma, separates platelets and returns blood back to cirulation, removal of antinuclear antibodies in the plasma and antigen-antibondy complexes, this can also remove
plasma pheresis rationale remove phathologic substance present in the plasma, 4 l plasman can be pheresed in 2-3 hrs, blood typing preventing transfusion reactions,
Created by: redhawk101