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68wm6 p2 Imm Sys

Immune System

QuestionAnswer
What is Adaptive Immunity? provides a specific reaction to each invading antigen and has the unique ability to remember the antigen that caused the attack
What is an Allergen? a substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body
What is an Antigen? a substance recognized by the body as foreign that can trigger an immune response
What is Attenuated? the process of weakening the degree of virulence of a disease organism
What is Cellular Immunity? the mechanism of acquired immunity characterized by the dominant role of small T cells
What is Humoral Immunity? one of the two forms of immunity that responds to antigens; it is mediated by B cells
What is an Immunogen? any agent or substance capable of provoking an immune response or producing immunity
What is Innate Immunity? the body's first line of defense; provides physical and chemical barriers to invading pathogens and protects the body against the external environment (1st two lines of defense)
What is the 1st line of defense? Anatomic barriers
What are the anatomic barriers? *Sloughing of skin *Coughing *Vomiting *Diarrhea *Urination *Bacteria colonization (Bodies natural symbiotic flora and fauna)
What is the second line of defense? Inflammatory Response
What is the third line of defense? Immune Response (Adaptive or Acquired Immune Response)
What WBC directs the immune response? Lymphocyte
What is an Antibody? the protein substances (also called “immunoglobulins”) produced by the immune system in response to exposure to an antigen
What are Lymphokines? one of the chemical factors produced and released by T cells that attract macrophages to the site of infection or inflammation and prepare them for attack
What is plasmapheresis? removal of plasma that contains components causing or thought to cause disease
What are the three functions of the immune system? *To protect the body against invading organisms *To maintain homeostasis by removing damaged cells from circulation *To serve as a surveillance network for recognizing and guarding against the development and growth of abnormal cells
What organs and cells fall under the Acquired/Adaptive immunity? *WBCs *Thymus *Spleen *Bone Marrow *Lymph
What cells fall under the INNATE immune system? *Phagocytes *Natural killer (NK) cells
Where do T Lymphocytes mature? Thymus
Where do B Lymphocytes mature? Bone Marrow
How do antigens, macrophages, and T cells interact? Macrophages ingest the antigens, process them then ‘present them’ to the T cells in a form that allows the T cells to act upon them
What happens to B-Cells once exposed to an antigen in the lymph tissue? They proliferate and differentiate into Memory B cells and Plasma B cells
What do responses of B-cells to antigens require? *Interaction with T-helper cells
What form of immunity responds to antigens such as bacteria and foreign tissue? Humoral Immunity
What form of immunity is the primary defense against intracellular organisms including viruses and some bacteria? Cellular Immunity
What B-cells produce antibodies (immunoglobulins; Ig)? Plasma B-cells
Immune Hypersensitivity Disorder is believed to be a genetic defect that allows increased production of what? IgE (immunoglobulin E- a humoral antibody)
What is the first evidence of immunodeficiency disease? an increased susceptibility to infection
What medication is given at first sign of Anaphylaxis? *0.5 mL of epinephrine (Adrenalin Chloride) 1:1000 subcutaneously (0.3 mL according to guest speaker) *Benadryl 50-100 mg IM/IV
How often must medical management of anaphylaxis be repeated? 15-minute intervals as prescribed by physician (every 15 min x 3 doses according to guest speaker)
What is the long term antibody producing Plasma B-cell? IgG
What is the immediate antibody producing Plasma B-cell? IgM
What is the primary secretory antibody producing Plasma B-cell? IgA
What is the allergic/parasite/anaphylactic antibody producing Plasma B-cell? IgE
Autoimmune failure occurs only in what? Just T-cells and/or B-cells
What are the clinical manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)? *oral ulcers *arthralgias or arthritis *vasculitis (polyarthralgia and polyarteritis in 90-95% of patients) *Malar (butterfly) rash *Nephritis *Pleural effusions *Anemia tends to be the most common complication
What drugs are given to relieve symptoms of SLE and attempt to induce remission? *NSAIDs to reduce inflammation *antimalarial drugs (hydroxychloroquine) *corticosteroids (such as prednisone), and antineoplastic drugs (Imuran, Cytoxan, Leukeran) to achieve remission or control signs and symptoms
What is plasma replaced with in plamapheresis? fluids such as saline or albumin
What does plasmapheresis remove? *Antinuclear antibodies (autoantibody) *Antigen - antibody complexes *Inflammatory mediators
Fill in the blanks: In plasmapheresis, When blood is manually removed only ____ mL may be taken at one time. 500
Fill in the blanks:With use of apheresis for plasmapheresis procedures over ____ of plasma can be pheresed in 2-3 hours. 4L
What electrolyte imbalance can occur from plasmapheresis and why? Hypocalcemia, Citrate is used as an anticoagulant and it has a negating effect on calcium (AKA Citrate toxicity)
Blood and blood components should be refrigerated at specific temperatures until how long before administration? 1/2 hour
Blood must be administered within how long after removal from refrigeration 4 hours
Only what type of I.V. Fluid is to be used with blood transfusions? 0.9% normal saline
How much blood is to be delivered over the 1st 15 minutes? 10cc - 25cc
What is to be done any time an adverse reaction is suspected? Immediately stop the blood and infuse normal saline. Notify the charge nurse and physician immediately
What must be sent to the lab if a blood transfusion reaction is suspected? *The unused blood and recipient tubing *10 ml specimen of the patient's venous blood *Post transfusion urine specimen
A unit of blood must be infused over how long unless what? a unit of blood should be infused within 2 to 4 hours unless contraindicated by risk of circulatory overload
What paperwork is to be given to the lab and placed in the PTs chart with blood transfusions? SF 518
How long can a mild blood transfusion reaction occur after a transfusion? Hours to Days
What are the S/Sx of a mild blood transfusion reaction? *Dermatitis *Diarrhea *Fever *Chills *Urticaria *Cough *Orthopnea
How long after the start of a blood transfusion does a moderate reaction occur? 30-90 minutes
What are the S/Sx of a moderate blood transfusion reaction? *Fever *Chills *Urticaria *Wheezing
How long after the start of a blood transfusion does a severe reaction occur? Within 1st 15 minutes
How long can blood be frozen and stored? As long as 3 years
Created by: Shanejqb