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Electrolytes etc

complete information

Diffusion is the movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration of solutes to an area of lower concentration of solutes until an equilibrium is reached
Passive diffusion Osmosis, Facilitated diffusion, Simple diffusion, Filtration
Active diffusion Gated channels, Protein pumps, Vesicles
Osmosis - movement of solvent (H2O) across a semi-permeable membrane so that the concentration of solutes are the same on both sides (there may be different volumes on either side of the membrane but an equal solute to water ratio)
Osmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop osmosis therefore it is the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent.
Isotonic concentration of solutes which are approximately the same as those of body fluids around 300mOsm/L
Hypotonic – is solution that has a lower concentration of solutes tha that of body fluid usually < 240mOsm/
Hypertonic is solution that has a greater concentration of solutes than the body fluids >340mOsm/L
What are the functions of water and its distribution Water provides the medium for the solubilisation and passage of a multitude of electrolytes from the blood to the cells and the return of metabolic products to the blood.
Solute the substance which dissolves in the solvent to form a solution ie salt, potassium etc
Solvent The substance (usually liquid) in which a solute is dissolvent in to form a solution ie blood.
Solution solute being dissolved in another substance called the solvent
Hyponatremia Na+ (sodium)(< 135mEq/L) the level of sodium in the blood is too low. It occurs when the Na+ has been over dilated
What causes hyponatremia (low Sodium) Receive large amount of IV fluid, Kidneys not failing Burns Excessive use of diuretics Addison’s disease ( deficient aldosterone) Excessive ADH secretio drinking large amounts of water
Hypernatremia (>145mEq/L) the level of sodium in the blood is too high. It occurs when there is too little water in the body relative to sodium ie:
What causes hypernatremia Dehydration Diabetes Insipidus (urinate to much water) Excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, fever Excessive IVT of Na+Cl
Hypokalemia (<3.5mEq/L ) the level of potassium in the blood is too low.
What causes hypokalemia Vomiting and diarrhea Chronic laxative use Cudhing disease, Inadequate dietary intake (rare) Diuretics
Hyperkalemia (>5.5mEq/L) the level of potassium in the blood too high
What causes hyperkalemia Kidney failure (not excreting potassium so levels build up) Rapid IV bolus of K+ Crush injuries Burns Overdoses of crack cocaine
Hypocalcemia (<9mg/dl) the level of calcium in the blood is too low
What causes hypocalcemia Renal failure/damage Hypoparathyroidism - failures to move calcium from bones to blood Vit D deficiency
Hypercalcemia (>11mg/dl) the levels of calcium in the blood to high
What causes hypercalcemia Renal failure Hyperparathyroidism Excessive Vit D intake People with peptic ulcers who take excessive intake of milk and calcium containing antacids for relief Cancers
Sodium Na+ 137 -145
Potassium K+ 3.5 – 5.5
Calcium Ca2+ 2.2-2.6
Magnesium Mg2+ 0.7-0.95
Major Electrolytes Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium
Anions Bicarb HCO3 Chloride CI Phosphate PO42
Created by: caronjones