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Purpose of IV Therap

types of fluids and purpose

Identify 4 reasons for delivering IV medication/therapy fluid maintance,fluid replacemnt, restoration and medication delivery
What maintance therapy does (Crystalloid (isotonic)) addresses the bodies daily fluid requirements provides H20, electrolytes and dextrose (shouldn't have 2 in a row)glucose. improves hepatic function calories for energy spares body protein minimises ketosis
Types of patients that may require maintance therapy NPO (nill by mouth) surgical
Replacement therapy used when fluid, electrolyte and blood deficiency in acute situations
Replacement therapy is delivered over a 48 hour period usually isotonic
Types of patients that may require replacement therapy haemorrhage low platelet count prolonged V&D starvation bowel surgery wound infections
Restoration therapy is fluid and electrolyte replacement restore homeostasis concurrent losses on an ongoing basis
Restoration delivery fluid ordered depends on fluid lost and blood serum levels acurate FBC is critical
Types of patients that may require restoration therapy patients with fistulas abcesses nasogastric tubes burns abdominal wounds frequent changes of type of fluid ordered
Medication administration may be given neat,diluted, as a bolus, over a period of time, continuous, short time from over 4 hours and intermittently
Client assessment issues in balances in fluid and electrolyte levels may impact on body systems thorough client assessment is vital in detecting these imbalances
Maintaining PH is particulary important for cardiac and respiratory conditions
Client assessment inspection, palpation ascultation
Central nervous system clinical manifestations confusion, irritability, restless, headaches, nausea and muscle spasms.
Cardiovascular system clinical manifestations tachycardia,(increases to pump more blood around the body) large jugular vein, heart rhythm weak and thready, palor, clammy
Respiratory clinical manifestations dyspnoea (shotness of breath) tachypnea (rapid breathing)cough, APO (acute pulmonary oedema, pink frothy sputum. crackles in breathing
Gastrointestinal System clinical manifestations abdo pain, bloating, dry mucus membrane,increased abdomen and reduced peristalsis (wavelike movement in the stomach)
Renal system clinical manifestations reduced output, anuria (not passing urine)skin tisues and other system symptoms
Musculoskeletal clinical manifestations spasms if low, fatigue
Integument system manifestations colour, gross oedema, dry, fluid leakage and turgor (assessment of fluid loss by pinching the skin etc)
Other issues related to IV therapy environmental, lifestyle, medications may influence fluid balance (diuretics, steroids)acute or chronic illnessess (diabetes, renal , respiratory, gastro,increased temp (every raised degree of temp is a reduction of 150 mls of fluid) self image, psycolog
Infants are at greater risk of FVD
Age 2-12 risks are less tolerant to large changes regulatory mechanisms operate within an narrow range
Adolescence risks adolescence are used to larger changes in fluid balance
Older adult risks reduced renal blood flow and GFR and homeostasis is affected
Monitoring input and output weigh at the same time, clothes and scales. 1L of water = 1 kg FBC to be acurate
Fluid volume excess (high) excess consumption decrese urine output often associated with cardiac, liver and renal disorders
Nursing fluid overload sit up diuretics fluid restriction vital signs education
Fluid volume deficit dehydration symptoms, temp, decreased fluid intake, increased fluid output,reduced kidney function
Fluid volume excess clinical manifestations oedema, LVF, SOB
Fluid volume deficit clinical manifestations diabetes insipidus, gastro etc.
Nursing fluid deficit vital signs, push fluids, FBC, IV therapy
Created by: caronjones