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Trauma Pt Assessment

Palomar College Medic Prep Guideline

QuestionAnswer
Scene Safety Self, team, victim.
Scene Survey General scene evaluation; MOI; Number of Pt's; Type of incident; Environmental clues
Situation What have you got? What is the expected outcome? What is your plan? What do you need to make it happen?
Patient Management Priorities Rapid assessment management; Rapid Transportation
Rapid Assessment Management Primary Survey; Initial Resuscitation; Secondary Survey; Definitive Field Care
Rapid Transportation Definitive hospital care
Primary Survey Airway (c-spine control); Breathing (ventilation); Circulation (hemorrhage control); Disability (mini-neurological exam); Expose, examine and environment (the Killer Survey).
Airway & C-Spine Early and Aggressive Airway: manual, mechanical, transtracheal. C-Spine.
Breathing and Ventilation Respiratory Rate: <12 = too slow; 12-20 normal; 20-30 = ?Anerobic Metabolism; >30 = hypoxia/acidosis. EARLY VENTILATION SUPPORT! Effective or Ineffective? Assess tidal volume, rise and fall, chest wall integrity, early assessment of breath sounds.
Circulation EARLY CONTROL OF EXTERNAL BLEEDING! PULSE: location (central versus peripheral), rate, rhythm, quality (central versus peripheral); CAPILLARY REFILL: location, time, limitation; SKINS: color, moisture, temperature.
Disability Direct measure of cerebral function; Indirect measure of cerebral oxygenation; AVPU; Pupils
Causes of ALOC AEIOUTIPS: Acidosis or Alcohol, Epilepsy, Infection, Overdose, Uremia, Trauma, Insulin, Psychosis, Stroke.
Expose, Examine, Environment (Three E's; the Killer Survey) Dont just look, listen and feel...; Recognize subtle signs and symptoms of apparent injuries to the HEAD, NECK, CHEST (back) or ABDOMEN.
Chief Complaint DO NOT GO ON WITHOUT IT! In many trauma Pt's much of the Primary Survey can be obtained with simple questions such as where they hurt (Head, back, neck, chest, or abdominal pain? Pain on deep inspiration? Trouble breathing? Loss of consciousness?
San Diego County Trauma Assessment BRIMCARB: Breathing, Response, Eyes (I), Movement/Muscle tone/Motor, Chest, Abdomen, Refill, BP
Vital Signs Prioritize for each Pt; Assess and Reassess (early recognition of subtle trends); DONT JUST GATHER DATA; PROBELLS.
PROBELLS Pulse, Respirations, O2 Saturation, BP, Eyes, Lungs, LOC, Skins
Initial Resuscitation Oxygenation, Ventilation, Circulatory Support! In many acute trauma Pt's further assessment will have to wait.
Secondary Survey (consider medical and trauma) Head, Neck, Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis, Extremities, Back, Neuro Exam.
Head VISUAL EXAM - contusions, abrasions, lacerations, penetrations, blunt trauma; Asymmetry; Eyes; Bleeding: ears, nose, mouth. PALPATION - deformity, depression, deviation.
Neck VISUAL EXAM - Soft Tissue Injury: with damage to underlying organs; Larynx & Trachea: contusions, lacerations, abrasions, deformity; JVD; Muscle Structures. PALPITATION - C-Spine; Deviation; Subcutaneous Emphysema.
Chest BARE CHEST EARLY! BILATERAL BREATH SOUNDS EARLY (prim. survey)! Deep/full sounds? Equal rise & fall? Contusions, lacerations, abrasions; Splinting/guarding; Paradox. Mov. (subtle); Access Musc (bulging/retrac.); Lateral/Anterior comp. SubQ Emphysema
Abdomen Guarding; Distension; Contusions/Abrasions/Lacerations (seatbelt sign 25%); Palpate all 4 Quads: start away from pain; tenderness; rigidity; guarding; time (compensatory mech.). Masses.
Pelvis Potential massive internal hemorrhage; VISUAL - abrasions/contusions/lacerations; fracture; distension; priamism. PALPATE - iliac crest mild pressure (lateral to medial); symphysis pubis. Suspect internal hemorrhage.
Extremities Deformity/Contusion/Abrasions/Lacerations; ROM; Neuro-Vascular Compromise (Six P's).
Six P's Pain, Pulselessness, Pallor, Paresthesias, Paresis, Paralysis.
Back Prior to placing on back board; Equal rise & fall; Contusions/Lacerations/Abrasions; Splinting/guarding; Paradoxical Movement (subtle); Intercostal Muscles (bulging/retracting); Lateral/Anterior Compression; Lumbar Spine; Flank Tenderness.
Neuro Exam Loss of consciousness (chief complaint?); LOC (GSC); Distal Sensory & Motor Function; Pupils
GSC Glasgow Coma Scale - EYES: spontaneous, verbal, pain, none; VERBAL: oriented, confused, inappropriate, incomprehensible, none. MOTOR: obedient, localizes pain, withdraws from pain, flexion/decorticate from pain, extension/decerabrate from pain, none.
History Medical Hx; Medications; Allergies; Last Meal; or (s)AMPLE
Packaging & Transporting Decisions made early in your assessment will impact patient outcome during packaging and transport; assessment determines type of transport for patient and condition/chief complaint.
Created by: leper