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Chapter 4

Prefixes & Terminology

a-, an- no, not, without
apnea without breathing
anoxia without oxygen
*ab- away from (the b faces "away" from the a)
abductor a muscle that draws a limb away from the body
*ad- toward (the d faces "toward" the a)
adductor a muscle that draws a limb toward the body
adrenal glands endocrine glands above the kidney
ana- up, apart (to build UP muscles)
anabolism process of building up substances in a cell
analysis separation of a substance into various parts
*ante- before, forward
anteflexion bending forward
ante cibum a.c., means before meals
antepartum before birth
*anti- against
antibiotic against life (germ life)
antibody protein made by white blood cells to destroy antigens
antisepsis destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection
auto- self, own
autoimmune disease producing antibodies against one's own normal cells
bi- two
bifurcation normal splitting into two branches
brady- slow
bradycardia usually, a pulse less than 60; a slow heart rate
cata- down opposite of ana-
catabolism is breaking "down" muscles for energy
*con- with, together (like a contract or construct)
*contra- against, opposite (contraband)
de- down, lack of
dehydration excessive loss of water
dia- through, complete
diarrhea is the frequent passage of watery loose stools
dys- bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
dyspnea often caused by respiratory or cardiac conditions, stenuous exercise, or anxiety
ec-, ecto- out, outside
ectopic pregnancy pregnancy that is not in the normal location; a fallopian tube is is the most common ectopic place
en-, endo- in, within
epi- upon, on, above
epithelium layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body
eu- good, normal
euphoria feeling of well-being
ex- out, outside, away from
exophthalmos protrusion of the eyeball associated with enlargement and overactivity of the thyroid gland
hemi- half
hemiglossectomy removal (resection) of half the tongue
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, under
in- not
insomniac pertaining to without sleep
in- into, within
incision process of cutting into or making an incision
infra- beneath, under
infracostal pertaining to below the ribs
*inter- between
intercellular between two cells
*intra- in, within, into
intracellular inside of a cell
macro- large; opposite of micro-
macrocephaly condition of a larger than normal head
mal- bad
malaise general feeling of bodily discomfort
meta- beyond, change
metastasis spread of malignant tumor from its original site to a new or distant location
micro- small
neo- new
neonatal pertaining to a newborn infant
pan- all
pancytopenia deficiency of all blood cells
para- abnormal, beside, near
per- through
percutaneous pertaining to through the skin
peri- surrounding
poly- many, much
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves
post- after, behind
postpartum after birth
pre- before, in front of (usually in regards to time)
prenatal pertaining to before birth
pro- before, forward (usually in regards to position)
prolapse sliding forward or downward
pseudo- false
pseudopod ambea's false foot
re- back,again
relapse a disease or its signs and symptoms return after an apparent recovery
retro- behind, backward
retroflexion an abnormal position of an organ, such as the uterus, bent or tilted backward
sub- under
supra- above, upper (opposite of infra)
suprapubic pertaining to above the pubic bones
syn-, sym- together, with
tachy- fast
trans- across, through
transfusion transfer of blood or blood parts from one person to another
ultra- beyond, excess (ultrafast, ultralite0
uni- one
unilateral pertaining to one side
Created by: shaunta44