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ARF and Cor Pulm.

QuestionAnswer
Acute Respiratory Failure not a disease but a condition; inadequate gas exchange, lung can not make the O2 demand of tissues
Signs of ARF specific or nonspecific; sudden or gradual onset; either decrease in PaO2 or rapid increase in PaCO2
PaO2 partial pressure oxygen or oxygen pressure in arterial blood; free oxygen that has not yet bound to hemoglobin (80-100mmhg)
SaO2 oxygen saturation in arterial blood. Once oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, it no longer exerts pressure (greater or equal to 90%)
PaCO2 partial pressure CO2, the amount of carbon dioxide present in the arteries (35-45mmhg)
Hypoxemia vs Hypercapnia Hypoxemia is not enough O2 in the blood, anything less than 60mmhg. Hypercapnia is not enough CO2 taken out of the blood, so anything greater than 45mmhg.
Symptoms of Respiratory Failure Early signs are tachycardia or HTN. Late signs are severe morning headache or cyanosis.
Consequences of hypoxemia/hypoxia Metabolic acidosis, cell death, decreased cardiac output, and impaired renal function
Clinical Manifestations of Resp Failure rapid shallow breathing; tripod position; dyspnea; pursed-lip breathing; retractions; change in I/E ratio
Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch volume of blood perfusing the lungs each minute (4-5L); this fails to match the fresh gas that reaches the alveoli, so glood and gas don't match...causes: COPD, pneumonia, asthma, atelectasis, PE
Shunt blood exits the heart w/o having participated in gas exchange; there are 2 types: Anatomic shunt (ventricular/septal defect) and Intrapulmonary shunt (b/c of fluid filled alveoli; ARDS, pneumonia, and PE)
diffusion Limitation gas exchange is compromised b/c a process has thickened or detroyed the membrane; severe emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, recurrent PE, hypoxemia present during exercise
Alveolar Hypoventilation decrease in ventilation that results in an increase in PaCO2 and decrease in PaO2, its a mechanical in PaO2; restrictive lung disease, CNS disease, chest wall dysfunction, and neuromuscular disease
Cor Pulmonale enlargement of the R ventricle (right-sided heart failure); secondary to disease of the lung, thorax, or pulmonary circulation; causes: pulmonary HTN, cardiac failure, and COPD (most common)
Clinical Manifestations of Cor Pulmonale dyspnea; chronic productive cough; wheezing; retro/substernal pain; fatigue
clinical Manifestations of heart failure peripheral edema 3+, weight gain, JVD, full & bounding pulse, enlarged liver
Created by: sydleigh