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Lab values (Nursing)

Lab values for KVCC nursing 2011-2

QuestionAnswer
Hgb Hemoglobin g/dl carries O2 Adult Male: 13-17 Female: 12-15 Pregnant: > 11.0 Child 11.0 to 16.0 Infant: 10.0 to 15.0 Newborn: Term: 14.0 to 24.0 Preterm: 15.0 to 17.0 Elderly Both Sexes: 10.0 to 17.0 •Meds can alter values •pregnancy values can be lower10 to
Hct Hematocrit % RBCs in a given concentration Adult Male: 39 to 51 Female: 36 to 45 Pregnant: >33 Child 31 to 43 Infant: 30 to 40 Newborn: Term: 44 to 64 Preterm: 45 to 55 Elderly Male: 36 to 56 Female 30 to 54 • Pregnancy values are usually decrease
RBC Red Blood Cell Count million/mm3 Carries O2 to the lungs and tissues Adult Male: 4.4-5.7 Female: 4.0-5.3 Pregnant: 5.0-6.25 Child 3.8-5.5 Infant: 3.8-5.5 Newborn: Term: 4.8-7.1 Preterm: 4.8-7.1 Elderly Both Sexes: 3.0-5.0 •Preg. values are usually decreased •Meds can alte
RBC Indices Assessment for anemia MCV- mean cell volume MCH-weight of the Hgb MCHC- concentration of the Hgb RDW – cell size Retic Ct.- immature RBCs Adult 80-95 mm3 27-31 pg 32-36g/dl 11-14.5% 0.5%-3.1%
Platelet Count Total number of platelets in the blood function  hemostasis Adult 150,000-400,000/cumm • High altitudes, exercise, and chronic cold weather increases platelet counts
SED Rate Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) mm/hr Rate at which RBCs settle in unclotted blood Adult Male: 1-10 Female: 1-20 Pregnant: elevated Child: 3-13 Infant: 3-13 Newborn: 0-2 Elderly Male: 15-20 Female: 20-30
WBC White Blood Cell Count 1000/mm3 Total number of circulating WBCs Adult: 4.0-10 Preg: 5.0-15 Child 5.0-10 Infant: 5.0-17.5 Newborn: Term: 9.0-30.0 Preterm: 10-20 Elderly Male: 4.25-14 Female: 3.1-12 •Anesthetics, stress, exercise, convulsions can increase •Meds can decrease •24-48 hours postpartum up to 25.0
Neutrophils First to respond in an infectious process Adult 38-78% Neutophils exist only 6 hrs. When produced in increased amounts become immature “bands or “stabs” which enter the circulation.
Eosinophils Increased in allergic reactions Adult 1-5%
Basophils Involved in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis Adult 0-2%
Lymphocytes Involved in humoral & cellular immunity T cells & B cells Adult 34% T cells– cellular immunity B-cells- humoral immunity (IGG, IGM, IGE,IGD,IGA)
Monocytes Phagocytizes bacteria Adult 1-8% Become macrophages when they are in the vascular system
Bleeding Time Evaluates the time it takes for adequate hemostasis Adult 1-9 minutes
PT Prothrombin Time Seconds Extrinsic clotting mechanism measures the time it takes for clot formation. Adult: 11-12.5 sec Slight ↓ in preg Child 12-14 Newborn/Neonate: 12-20 Elderly Same as adult • Used in regulating Coumadin therapy • Therapeutic range 1.5 to 2.5 times norm
PTT Partial Prothrombin Time Seconds Intrinsic clotting mech. measures the # of seconds to clot blood Adult 25-35 sec Slight ↓ in preg Child <60 Newborn <90 Elderly Same as adult •Used to regulate heparin therapy. Dont draw from arm where hep. is infusing •Therap. range is 1.5-2.5 x no
APTT Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Seconds Adult Both Sexes: 35 to 45 Child Same as adult Infant: <90 Elderly Same as adult • Therapeutic range is 2 times normal/control • used in regulating heparin therapy
INR International Standard Thromboplastin Index Standardized PT value Adult 0.7-1.2 Child Same as adult Elderly Same as adult • Therapeutic range is 1.5 to 2.5 times normal/control • Used to monitor the effects of oral anticoagulation • Therapeutic range is 2.0 to 3.0
Calcium mg/dl Electrolyte that affects the nervous system, muscle contraction and blood coagulation Adult 8.5 - 10.5 Child Same as adult Infant: 9.0 to 11.0 Newborn: 7.0 to 12.0 Elderly 8.5 to 10.5 • Use of Thiazide diuretics can cause increased calcium values
Chloride mEq/L Electrolyte that maintains pH and water balance Adult 95 to 105 Child 101 to 105 Infant: 95 to 110 Newborn: 93 to 112 Elderly 94 to 106 • Do not collect from arm with infusing IV solution
Potassium mEq/L Important in muscle function, conduction of the heart and acid base balance Adult 3.5 to 5.5 Child 3.5 to 4.7 Infant: 4.1 to 5.3 Newborn: 5.0 to 7.7 Neonate (cord): 5.6 to 12.0 Elderly 3.5 to 5.6 Potassium mEq/L
Sodium mEq/L Important in water balance and conduction of the nerve tissue Adult 135 to 145 Child 138 to 145 Infant: 139 to 146 Newborn: 139 to 162 Elderly Male: 134 to 147 Female: 135 to 145 • Do not collect from arm with infusing IV solution
Magnesium mg/DL Reflects metabolic and neuromuscular activity and myocardial functioning Adult 1.5 - 2.5
Alkaline Phosphatase IU/L high in bone and liver disease Adult Male: 19-74 Female: 12-63 Preg: high week 12 to 6 weeks postpartum Child: 90-230 Adolescent: 100-250 Infant: 100-330 Newborn: 50-275 Elderly Male: 19-74 Female: 12-64 •Hepatoxic meds admind within 12º can alt
Albumin g/dl Plasma protein Adult Both Sexes: 3.5 to 5.0 Pregnant: Slight  Child 4.0 to 5.8 Infant: 4.4 to 5.3 Newborn: 3.6 to 5.4 Elderly 3.2 to 4.5 • No special preparation
Ammonia ug/dl The liver converts ammonia (waste product of nitrogen) to urea. Rises in liver failure. Adult 20-120 • Instruct the patient to refrain from smoking and to fast 8 to 10 hours before the test.
Amylase u/l pancreatic enzyme that facilitates carbohydrate digestion Adult 25-151 • Some medications can cause false negative/positive results
Bilirubin Total mg/dl Byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown. Made by the liver, spleen, and bone marrow Adult/child 0.1-1.2 Infant/Newborn 0-1 day: <6 1-2 day: <8 3-5 day: <12 After 5 days: <1 Elderl 0.2-1.2 •NPO but water 8-12 h. prior •high w/ use of alcohol or morphine
Bilirubin Direct mg/dl Adult 0.1 to 0.4 Child Same as adult Infant/Newborn 0 to 1.0 Elderly 0.1 to 0.4 • Same as for bilirubin total
Cholesterol mg/dl lipid present in all body tissues Adult <200 Child 120-240 Infant: 70-175 Newborn: 45-170 Over 40: 200-210 Over 65: 150 to 250 • NPO except for water 10 to 12 hours prior to testing • Smoking and a diet high in lipids can affect fractionation
LDL Low density lipoprotein Adult < 100
HDL High density lipoprotein Adult Male: > 40mg/dl Female: > 50mg/dl
Triglycerides mg/dl Adult <150 Child 30 to 150 Infant/Newborn: 5 to 40 Elderly 160 to 190 • NPO 12 hours before testing • No alcohol for 24 hours before test
Iron mcg/dl Important in blood cell production Adult 65 to 175 Child 50 to 120 Infant: 40 to 100 Newborn: 100 to 250 Elderly Same as adult • Preferred but not necessary to be NPO 8 hours prior to testing
TIBC Total Iron Binding Capacity mcg/dl Provides an estimate of total iron storage and reflective of nutritional status Adult 250 to 450 Child 350 to 450 Infant: 100 to 400 Newborn: 60 to 175 Elderly Same as adult • None
Lipase units/L Pancreatic fat enzyme Adult 10 -140 Elevated in pancreatic disorders
Protein Total g/dl Regulates osmotic pressure, contributes in coagulation factors and is needed for tissue growth and repair Adult 6.0 to 8.2 Child 6.2 to 8.0 Newborn: 4.6 to 7.6 Elderly 6.0 to 7.8 • Avoid  fat diet for 8 hours prior to testing
Uric Acid mg/dl Is a purine metabolized from dietary protein Adult Male: 4.5 – 8.0 Female: 2.5 - 6.2 Aminophylline, caffeine and vitamin C may falsely elevate
Glucose mg/dl Chief source of cellular energy Adult 70-100 Child 60-100 Infant: 60-100 Newborn: 30-80 Elderly 70-110 • NPO except for water 8 hours prior to testing • Caffeine can cause increased values • Used to diagnose diabetes
Glycoslated hemoglobin Blood glucose bound to hemoglobin Adult ≤ 7.0% • Long term measure of glucose control
Glucose Tolerance Test mg/dl Evaluates the metabolism of glucose over a 2 hour period Adult < 140 • NPO except for water 8 hours prior to testing • Used to diagnose diabetes
AST/SGOT aspartate aminotransferease IU/L Adult AST/SGOT: 5-40 Child AST/SGOT 5-40 Infant/Newborn AST/SGOT 20-160 Elderly AST, SGOT: Slightly higher than adult • Exercise may cause an increased value
ALT/SGPT alanine aminotransferase U/ml Reflects liver function Adult ALT/SGPT: 5-35 Child ALT/SGPT 5-35 Infant/Newborn ALT/SGPT 5-70 Elderly ALT, SGPT: Slightly higher than adult • Exercise may cause an increased value
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) unit/L Nonspecific indicator of liver disease, bone disease, or hyperparathyroidism. Adult 20-130 • Fatty food intake should be avoided 2-4 hours before the test
CPK Creatine Phosphokiinase U/L Reflects tissue catabolism from cell trauma Adult Male: 17-148 Female: 10-79 Child > 100 Newborn: 10-300 Elderly Same as adult • Specimen must not be stored prior to running test
CPK-MB mg/Ml Specific for cardiac muscle damage Adult <7.0 • Invasive procedures and intravenous cellular injections may elevate CPK levels falsely. • Avoid alcohol 24º prior to test.
LDH Lactic Dehydrogenase IU/L Enzyme present in the heart, kidneys, brain, liver, and skeletal muscles Adult 60-220 Child Male: 50-150 Female: 40-140 Newborn: 300-1500 then same as child Elderly 71-207 • No IM injections 8 to 12 hours prior to testing
Troponin T or I ng/mL Regulatory protein found in skeletal and myocardial muscle Adult 0.6-1.5 (T) Adult 0.1 - 0.2 (I) • Elevated in myocardial infarction. Measured serially and can detect the presence of an MI up to 10 days.
Creatinine mg/dl measures breakdown of creatine phosphate used in muscle (excreted only by kidneys) Adult/child 0.7-1.5 Up to 1 yr: 0.3-1.1 Eld. 0.6-1.8 •Pref. but not nec. to be NPO 8 hours before test •Ratio of 20:1, Creatinine to BUN means adequate kidney function
Urea Nitrogen mg/dl Urea is a byproduct of hepatic protein metabolism which is secreted by the kidney Adult 4-22 Child >20 Infant/Newborn: 5-15 Elderly 8-18 • Reflects the liver’s ability to make urea, thus an indirect measure of renal function
pH Measure of hydrogen ion concentration in the arterial blood Adult/child/elderly 7.35-7.45 Pregnant: 7.40-7.45 Newborn: 7.32-7.40 • Specimen must be heparinized and must be iced for transport • Direct pressure to puncture site must be maintained
Pco2 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood Adult/child/eld 35-45 Pregnant: 27-32 Newborn: 26-41 Infant: 27-41 • Specimen must be heparinized and must be iced for transport • Direct pressure to puncture site must be maintained
Po2 mmHg Partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood Adult/child/eld 80-100 Pregnant: 104-108 Newborn: 60-70 Infant: 83-108 • Specimen must be heparinized and must be iced for transport • Direct pressure to puncture site must be maintained
HCO3 mEq/L Principal buffer excreted and produced by the kidney Adult/chld/eld 21-28 Pregnant: 18-31 Newborn: 16-24 Infant: 21-28 • Specimen must be heparinized and must be iced for transport • Direct pressure to puncture site must be maintained
HCO3 or CO2 Content “venous” Adult 22-28 Child Same as adult Infant/Newborn Same as adult Elderly Same as adult • None
O2 saturation % Measures hemoglobin molecules' saturation of oxygen Adult/child 95-100 Newborn: 85-90 Infant: 95-99 Elderly 95 •Specimen must be heparinized and iced for transport •Direct pressure to puncture site must be maintained •Can be effected by temp. cha
Created by: feral