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TL Bone Labs

Lab values pertinent to musculoskeletal disorders

Define Antinuclear Antibodies. ANAs destroy the nucleus of cells where the DNA lives
What does a positive ANA test indicate? not definitive but indication of auto-antibodies suggesting the presence of an autoimmune disease
Give some examples of conditions that would result in a positive ANA test. Scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus
What is the normal reference value for Calcium in adults? 9-11mg/dL
Why do we care about Calcium values when we are monitoring a client neuromuscular function? Calcium is one of the most abundant electrolytes in the body that causes neuromuscular irritability and contractions
List some possible causes of low serum calcium levels. osteomalacia, inadequate dietary intake, renal disease, hypoparathyroidism
What dietary choices would you recommend to a client with low serum calcium? Green vegetables, broccoli, sardines, salmon with bone, diary- milk, cheese, yogurt
List some possible causes of high serum calcium levels. bone neoplasm, multiple fractures, immobilization, renal calculi, hyperparathyroidism
What is the normal reference value for serum phosphorus? 2.5 – 4.5 mg/dL
What relationship exists between calcium and phosphorus levels? inverse
What are some possible causes of low serum phosphorus? hypercalcemia, starvation, malabsorption syndrome, osteomaliacia, vitamin D deficiency
What are some possible causes of high serum phosphorus? healing fractures, metastatic bone tumors, renal failure, and hypocalcemia
What is the normal reference value for Rheumatoid Factor? negative to <1:20
Define the RF test. screening blood test used to detect antibodies (IGM, IGA, or IGG) foundin clients with rheumatoid arthritis, but may be indicative of disease other than rheumatoid arthritis
What is the normal value for ESR? <20mm/hr
Define the ESR test. nonspecific serologic test that measures the rate at which RBCs settle out of unclotted blood in mm/hr
What does an elevated ESR indicate? inflammatory process such as in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and osteomyelitis
What is the normal value for Uric Acid in males? 4.5 -6.5mg/dL
What is the normal Uric Acid value for females? 2.5-5.5 mg/dL
What is Uric Acid? the end product of purine metabolism
How is uric acid normally eliminated from the body? the kidneys
What does an uric acid test tell us? usually used to monitor serum uric acid levels in the treatment of gout, also may be used to diagnose other health problems
What are some possible causes of elevated uric acid levels? gout, poor renal function, excessive purine metabolism, excessive dietary intake of purine foods
What foods are high in purines? anchovies, sardines, oils, herring, organ meat (liver, kidney, and sweetbreads), legumes (dried beans and peas), gravies, mushrooms, spinach, asparagus, cauliflower, consommé, and baking or brewer's yeast