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A & P Lab Exam I

Lab Exam I

Heart Cone-shaped organ approximately the size of a fist, is located within the mediastinum, or media cavity of the thorax.
Apex pointed part of the heart, extends slightly to the left and rests on the diaphragm, approximately at the level of the fifth intercostal space.
Base Area of the heart in which the great vessels emerge. Lies beneath the second rib an dpoints toward the right shoulder.
Epicardium Visceral pericardium, is closely applied to the heart muscle. It reflects downward at the base of the heart to form its companion serous memebrane, the outer loosely applied parietal pericardium.
parietal pericardium which is attached at the heart apex to the diaphragm.
fibrous pericardium composed of dense connecive tissue, lined by the serous parietal pericardium
myocardium cardiac muscle that the heart walls are composed of reinforced by a dense fibrous connective tissue ntework.
atria two superior chambers of the heart, recieving chambers
ventricles two inferior chambers of the heart
endocardium line the four chambers of the heart, thin serous endothelium.
interatrial or interventricular septum the septum that divides the heart longitudinally. depending on which chamber is partitions.
superior and inferior venae cavae delivers oxygen poor blood from the body to the right atrium.
pulmonary veins four veins that deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
pulmonary trunk receives blood from the right ventricle, which routes blood to the lungs to be oxygenated.
aorta the left ventricle discharges blood into, from which all systemic arteries of the body diverge to supply the body tissues.
atrioventrical valves AV valves, located between the atrial and ventricular chambers on each side, privent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting.
mitral valve bicuspid valve, left av valve, consists of two cups or flaps, of endocardium.
tricuspid valve right av valve, has three cusps
chordae tendinae tiny white collagenic cords, anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls. originate from small bundles of cardiac muscle.
papillary muscle small bundles of cardiac muscle that project from the myocardial wall. the chordae tendinae originate from.
diastole the period of ventricular filling, the av flaps hang limply into the ventricular chambers and then are carried passively toward the atria by the accumulating blood.
systole when the ventricles contract. and compress the blood in their chambers, the intraventricular blood pressure rises.
pulmonary and aortic valves the second set of valves, each composed of three pocketlike cusps,guards the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers.
pulmonary circulation the right side of the heart, shunts the carbon dioxide rich blood entering its chambers to the lungs to unload carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen.
systemic circulation the second circuit of the heart which carries oxygen rich blood from teh left heart through the body tissues and back to the right side of the heart. provides the functional blood supply to all body tissues.
right and left coronary arteries issue from the base of the aorta just above the aortic semilunar valve and encircle the heart in the coronary sulcus at the junction of the atria and ventricles.
posterior intraventricular and right marginal artery supplies the right coronary artery which in turn supplies posterior surface of the ventricles and the lateral aspect of the right side of the heart,
anterior intraventricular artery and circumflex artery two major branches of the left coronary artery which supplies the anterior ventricular walls and the laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart.
great, middle, and small cardiac veins drain the myocardium and empty into the coronary sinus.
coronary sinus empties into the right atrium
anterior cardiac veins empty directly into the right atrium
intercalated discs area where the cells interdigitate
auricles earlike flaps of tissue projecing from the atrial chambers.
brachiocephalic artery splits to form the right carotid and subclavian arteries, which supply the right side of the head and right forelimb, respectively.
ligamentum arteriosum between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, cordlike remnant of the ductus arteriosus.
ductus arteriosus in the fetus, allows blood to pass directly fromt eh pulmonary trunk to the aorta, thus bypassing the nonfunctional fetal lungs.
pectinate muscle comblike ridges of muscle throughout most of the right atrium.
coronary sinus just below the inferior vena caval opening, returns venous blood of the coronary circulation to the right atrium.
fossa ovalis an oval depression in the interatrial septum, marks the site of an opening in the fetal heart.
foramen ovale opening in the fetal heart, which allows blood to pass fromt he right to the left atrium, thus bypassing the fetal lungs.
trabeculae carneae pitted and ridged appearance of the inner ventricular muscle.
moderator band septomarginal band, a bundle of of cardiac muscle fibers connecting the interventricular septum to anterior papillary muscles.
functional synctium a single unit, the entire myocardium acts as one because the cardiac muscle cells are electrically connected by gap junctions.
intrinsic conduction system nodal system, the second system, consists of specialized noncontractile myocardial tissue. ensures that the heart muscle depolarizes in an orderly and sequential manner (from atria to ventricles)and that the heart beats as a coordinated unit.
sinoatrial node sa node, component fo intrinsic conduction system, located in the right atrium just inferior to the entrance to the superior vena cava.Pacemaker
atrioventricular node av node, intrinsic conduction system, in the lower atrial septum at the junction of the atria and ventricles
AV Bundle of His and right and left bundle branches intrinsic conduction system, located in the interventricular septum
Purkinje fibers intrinsic conduction system, long strands of barrel-shaped cells called purkinje myocytes, which ramify within the muscle bundles of the ventricular walls. last part of pathway resulting in ventricular contraction.
electrocardiogram the graphic recording of the electrical changes (depolarization followed by repolarization) occurring during a cardiac cycle.
P-R interval represents the time between teh beginning of atrial depolarization and venticular depolarization. includes the period in which the depolarization wave passes to the av node, atrial systole, and the passage of excitation wave to the balance of the conducti
Q-T interval the period from the beginning of ventricular depolarization through repolarization and includes the time of ventricular conraction ( S-T segment)
tachycardia heart rate over 100 beats/min
bradycardia heart rate below 60 beats/min
fibrillation prolanged tachycardia may progress to, a condition of rapid uncoordinated heart contractions which makes the heart useless as a pump.
tunica intima interna, lines the lumen of a vessel, is a single thin layer of endothelium that is continuous with the endocardium of the heart.
tunica media bulky middle coat and is composed primarily of smooth muscle and elastin. Smooth muscle regulates the diameter of blood vessels, alters peripheral resistance and blood pressure.
tunica externa adventitia, the outermost tunic, composed of areolar or fibrous connective tissue. supportive and protective function
aorta the largest artery of the body
right and left coronary arteries the only branches of the ascending aorta, supply the myocardium.
brachiocephalic trunk first branch of the aortic arch
left common carotic artery and subclavian artery the other two major arteries branching off the aortic arch
right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery the brachiocephalic artery divides into
internal carotic artery the common carotid artery on each side divides to form. serves the brain and gives rise the the ophthalmic artery (which supplies orbital structures)
external carotid artery the common carotid artery on each side divides to form. supplies the extracranial tissues of the neck and head, via its superficial temporal, maxillary, facial and occipital arterial branches.
vertebral artery branch of the subclavian artery, runs up th posterior neck to supply the crebellum, part of the brain stem, and the posterior cerebral hemispheres.
thyrocervical trunk subclavian branch, lateral to the vertebral artery, which maily serves the thyroid gland and some scpular muscles
costocervical trunk subclavian branch, supplies deep neck muschles and some of the upper intercostal muscles.
anterior and middle cerebral arteries internal carotid artery divides into, supply the bulk of the cerebrum.
anterior communicating artery a short shunt that connects the right and left anterior cerebral arteries.
posterior communicating arteries shunts from anterior communicating arteries and middle crebral arteries. contribute to the formation of the cerebral arterial circle ( circle of Willis). `
cerebral arterial circle ( circle of Willis an arterial anastomosis at the base of the brain surrounding the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma
vertebral arteries diverge from the subclavian arteries and pass superiorly through the foramina of the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae to enter the skull through the foramen magnum
basilar artery within the skull, the vertical arteries unit to form, continues superiorly along the ventral aspect of the brain stem, giving off branches to the pons, crebellum, and inner ear.
axillary artery runs through the axilla, it gives off several branches to the chest wall and shoulder girdle
thoracoacromial artery shoulder and pectoral region, branch of axillary artery.
lateral thoracic artery branch of axillary artery, lateral chest wall
subscapular artery branch of axillary artery, scapula and dorsal thorax
anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries branch of the axillary artery, to the shoulder and the deltoid muscle.
brachial artery at the inferior edge of the teres major muscle the axillary artery becomes as it enters the arm.
deep artery of the arm a major branch of the brachial artery.
radial and ulnar arteries at the elbow the the bracial artery divides into, which follow the same named bones to supply the forarm and hand,.
internal thoracic arteries arise from the subclavian arteries supply the mammary glands, most of the thorax wall, and anterior intercostal structures via their anterior intercostal artery branches.
posterior intercostal arteries the first two pairs arise from the costocervical trunk.
celiac trunk an unpaired artery that subdivides almost immediately into three branches, the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery.
left gastric artery supplies the stomach
splenic artery supplies the spleen
common hepatic artery runs superiorly and gives off branches to the stomach ( r gastric artery) duodenum, and pancreas.
hepatic artery proper the common hepatic artery becomes, serves the liver
right and left gastroepiploic arteries branches of the gastroduodenal and splenic arteries, serve the left greater curvature of the stomach.
superior mesenteric artery largest branch of the abdominal aorta, supplies most of the small intestine and the first half of the large intestine.
middle suprarenal arteries flanking the superior mesenteric artery on the left and right, serve the adrenal glands that sit atop the kidneys.
renal arteries supply the kidneys and the gonadal arteries.
gonadal arteries arise from the ventral aortic surface just below the renal arteries, run inferiorly to serve the gonads.
ovarian arteries gonadal arteries of females.
testicular arteries gonadal arteries of males.
inferior mesenteric artery final branch of the abdominal aorta, which supplies the distal half of the large intestine via several branches.
lumbar arteries four pairs, arise from the posterolateral surface of the aorta to supply the posterior abdominal wall (lumbar region).
commom iliac arteries in the pelvic region, the descending aorta divides into, serve the pelvis, lower abdominal wall, and the lower limbs.
internal iliac artery supplies the gluteal muscles via the superior and inferior gluteal arteries and the adductor muscles of the medial thigh via the obturator artery, as well as the external genitalia and perineum.
external iliac artery supplies the anterior abdominal wall and the lower limb.
femoral artery the external iliac artery becomes in the thigh.
circumflex femoral arteries proximal branches of the femoral arteries, supply the head and neck of the femur and the hamstring muscles.
deep artery of the thigh deep femoral artery, deep branch of the femoral artery, which is the main supply to the thigh muscles.
popliteal artery the femoral artery becomes in the knee region.
anterior and posterior tibial arteries subdivisions of the popliteal artery, supply the leg, ankle, and foot.
fibular artery main branch of posterior tibial, serves the lateral calf and then divides into the lateral and medial plantar arteries.
lateral and medial plantar arteries supply blood to the sole of the foot.
dorsalis pedis artery supplies the dorsum of the foot and continues on as the arcuate artery. palpitated in pts with circulation problems to determine circulatory efficiency to the limb.
arcuate artery issues the dorsal metatarsal arteries to teh metatarsus of the foot.
superior vena cava veins draining the head and upper extremities empty into
inferior vena cava Veins draining the lower body empty into
common iliac veins lower abdominal region, drain venous blood from the legs and pelvis
internal iliac vein form the common iliac vein, drain the pelvis
external iliac vein receives venous blood from the lower limb
anterior and posterior tibial veins serve the calf and foot
dorsalis pedis the anterior tibial vein is a superior continuation of , in the foot.
medial and lateral plantar veins forms the posterior tibial vein, ascends deep in the calf muscles.
fibular vein in the calf
popliteal vein crosses the back of the knee
femoral vein in the thigh, becomes the external iliac vein in the inguinal region.
great saphenous vein a superficial vein, is the longest vein in the body. extends up the medial side of the leg, knee, and thigh to empty into the femoral vein.
lumbar veins supply blood to the posterior abdominal wall which supplies the inferior vena cava.
right gonadal vein supplies the right ovary or testis which supplies the inferior vena cava
renal veins drain the kidneys
right suprarenal veins receiving blood from the adrenal gland on the same side, drains into the inferior vena cava
left suprarenal veins empties into the left renal vein inferiorly
hepatic veins drain the liver
right and left brachiocephalic veins drain the head, neck, and upper extremities adn unite to formt he superior vena cava.
internal jugular vein branch of brachiocephalic vein, drain the superior sagittal sinus and other dural sinuses of the brain.
superficial and temporal facial veins receive blood from the head and neck.
vertebral veins drain the posterior aspect of the head including the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord. branch of brachiocephalic vein.
subclavian veins branch of brachiocephalic vein, receive venous blood from teh upper extremity.
external jugular vein joins the subclavian vein near its origin to return the venous drainage of the exracranial tissues of the head and neck.
axillary vein subclavian vein becomes after travesing the axilla
brachial vein subclavian vein becomes after travesing the axilla, formed by the union of the deep radial and ulnar veins of the forearm.
cephalic vein superficial venous drainage of the arm, which courses along the lateral aspect of the arm and empties into the axillary vein.
basiic vein found on the medial of the arm and entering the brachial vein
median cubital vein runs between the cephalic and basilic veins in the anterior aspect of the elbow. blood used for testing purposes.
median antebrachial vein lies between the the radial and ulnar veins, and terminates variably by entering the cephalic or basilic vein at the elbow
azygos system drains the intercostal muscles of the thorax and provides an accessory venous system to drain the abdominal wall.
azygos vein drains the right side of the thorax, enters the dorsal aspect of the superior vena cava immediately before that vessel enters the right atrium.
hemiazygos a continuation of the left ascending lumbar vein.
accessory hemiazygos vein with the hemiazygos vein drain the left side of the thorax and empty into the azygos vein.
bronchial arteries provide the functional blood supply of the lungs, which diverge from the thoracic portion of the descending aorta.
pulmonary trunk pulmonary circulation begins with, leaves the right ventricle and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries.
lobar arteries three on the right side and two on the left, subdivisions of the right and left pulmonary arteries.
pulmonary capillaries diffusion of the respiratory gases occurs across the walls of with the alveoli
pulmonary veins four veins which return the blood to the left atrium of the heart.
umbilical vein carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus.
umbilical arteries carry carbon dioxide and waste-laden blood from the fetus to the placenta.
ductus venosus a shunt vessel which carries newly oxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart of the fetus.
foramen ovale a flaplike opening in the interatrial septum, sunts the blood entering the right atrium into the left atrium in the fetus
ductus arteriosus a short vessel connecting the pulmonary trunkand the aorta. a second shunt that the blood that does not enter the right ventricle and is pumped out of the pulmonary trunk encounter.
fossa ovalis at birth or shortly after the foramen ovale closes to form
ligamentum arteriosum the ductus arteriosus collapses and is converted to
medial umbilical ligaments remnants of the umbilical arteries persist as, on the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall
ligamentum teres of the liver
ligamentum venosum on the inferior surface of the liver.
hepatic portal vein deliver the blood to the liver for processing
inferior mesenteric vein drains the distal portions of teh large intestine.
splenic vein drains the spleen and part of the pancreas and stomach
superior mesenteric vein receives blood from the small intestine and the ascending and transverse colon, unit to form the hepatic portal vein
left gastric vein drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein.
Created by: kor123